From: Geschiedenis en Kunst - Woord- en beeldende kunst op het net, b.van den Ende - Phoeniciers_Geschiedenis en kunst

Phoenicians

G - FGC6669

Gallia Belgica

The Fertile Crescent

English flag USA flag
Il y a une version française
–   Er is een Nederlandse versie
Nederlandse vlag Belgische vlag

*

G2a2a1a1 - FGC6669

This clade is formed 11,000 years ago in Central Anatolia, Turkey, the western part of the Fertile Crescent, immediately after the last ice age. the Mesolitic. It is in the Preboreal that followed the last cold phase of the Weichsel glacier, the young Dryas - also called the "last ice age"

In the pre-ceramic Neolithic Boncuklu are found the oldest archaeologic remains of this clade dated 10,300 BP. Remains from members of our father clade G-PF3147 are found in Tepecik-Çiftlik and are dated 8,500 BP. (1)

Anatolia

Anatolia

Tepecik-Çiftlik-tatarliziyaret

Tepecik-Çiftlik

About 9,800 ago, the first cultured "Emmer wheat" appears. The archaeological-botanical remains of Boncuklu Höyük in western Anatolia, from Çatal Höyük in southern Anatolia, and Chogha Golan in the Zagros Mountains of West Iran are the oldest examples of real agricultural cultures.

A strong climate change begins 8,500 years ago. This causes the drought still present in the Middle East. The country is shrinking. In addition, the breakthrough of the Bosphorus causes the level of the Black Sea to rise thirty meters in a relatively short time. This event lives fort in stories about a flood in the Gilgamesh epic and the bible.

Departure from the Region

Both owing to population growth and reduced agricultural production a large number of this G population leaves Anatolia . They spread outl in all directions, east to Pakistan, north to the Caucasus and westward to Europe. They spread agricultural culture across Europe and Asia.

The start of expansion to Europe began already before 8500 BP with a departure to three regions in western Anatolia: the lake area at Antalya, the coasts on both sides of the Aegean Sea, and in the Northwest around the Sea of Marmara at Barcin.

G2a2_migrations

Possible migration routes of G2a2a-PF3147 and G2a2b-L30 of the Cardial Ware and Starcevo / LBT Cultures.

From there the went in two groups to Europe over two different ways. One across the country, the continental group. and one by sea, the Mediterranean group.

A.

The continental group goes through Macedonia and the Morava and Danube valleys to Serbia and Hungary where they reach the Hungarian lowlands around 8000 years. Here are many archaeological discoveries done of them. They continue along the Danube and the Rhine to Western Europe. They were the first European Neolithic farmers and according to the characteristic decorations of their pottery this is called the Linear Band Culture.

In South Limburg, the Hesbaye and the Condroz flourish their culture from 7,800 years ago. They meet here the Hoguettiens. Through Lorraine a branch went through Paris basin to the Channel and Hainaut.

.
B.

The maritime group went from the Aegean region along South coasts of Anatolia and the Levant to Cyprus and Crete and further to North Africa and Morocco. They are the bearers of the Cardial Ware culture.

In 8,200 BPthey reach Italy, Corsica and Sardinia and then around 7,500 BP the coasts of Spain and Portugal's and Spanish coasts. Not only the coasts were colonized but also the interior of the counties to the Italian Alps.

One part goes in France to the north along the Rhône and Loire to the Atlantic coast. The characteristic pottery found in Normandy at La Hoguette is awarded to them. These Hoguettiens are also found across the Rhine at Stuttgart and Worms. They were also into South Limburg where they lived atthe same time besides the continental LBK branch.

It is very likely that many from Normandy took the crossing to England. This will have been at the narrowest place in Calais. British Neolithian farmers were genetically comparable to contemporary populations in continental Europe, and especially to the neolithic Iberians, the inhabitants of the east coast of Spain, suggesting that some of the peasant families in Britain came through the Mediterranean Sea and not via the continental route along the Danube.

Of the FGC6669 clade members also remained in the countries around the Mediterranean. There is a descendant FGC6669* (the asterisk indicates he has this a his final branch) of which still descendants live on the Mediterranean island of Sardinia.

*

G-FGC6663

This branch is formed around 10,300 before present out of FGC6669.

One family is FGC6663*
They live in the Krasnodar district (Краснодарский край)
in the Northern Caucasus in Russia. In this region live also many Armenians.

*

G-Y14935

Formed around 9,100 before present.

One known family lives in an Saudi Arabia.

Around 7,800 BP G-Y14935 divides into two branches.

split.
A

M286

This group is follows here under.

B

FGC6618

This group is described on an own page.

*

A

M286

Formed 7,800 ybp

This branch stayed long in the middle East.

It was 4,400 years ago or 2,400 bC. that became a separation between

A line now living in Georgia, Southern Caucasus: M286*, and the other line: FCC5813.

pijl
FGC58133

Formed 4.400 ybp

This clade split 3,300 years ago into two head branches,
A mixed Amenian, Lebanese / English group, and several families in a purely British group.

splitsing
A

FGC58189

Formed & TMRCA 3.300 ybp

A mixed Lebanese / English group

B


Z43083

Formed 3.300 ybp & TMRCA 500 ybp

Two English family groups

*

Here we present the matching groups

Note: These are based on the haplotype with STRs.
The TMRCA is only indicative in the green squares, and probably more in the yellow ones. In the red and bleu ones it may be the double to quadruple and in the whites even to op to 10 times more then indicated.
This is due to convergence, what means reverse and parallel mutations.

M286_GD M286_TMRCA
Europa Google Earth-G2a2a2a

(cursor on image enlarges)

FGC6669*

families have red dots.

FGC6663*

families have marron dots.

FGC6618

families have yellow dots.

M286

families have blue dots.

*

It is still dark to us how it went. When he stayed in the original region. He was probably an Aegean farmer, an inhabitant of Troy and have fought under Patroclos against the Achaeans.

More east was the empire of the Hatti to about 4,000 years ago existed. Their language was akin to the ancient Caucasian languages. Çatalhöyük was in part of the region and was about 185 km south of their capital of Hattusa.

Hattusa is around 1700 v. Chr. under the authority of a Hittite dynasty, who a short time before had founded the first Hittite kingdom.

Hittite Empire

The extensive Hittite Empire (red) replaces around 1290 AC Hatti and borders the Egyptian empire (green) (3)

The empire of the Hittite dynasty existed between about 1700 and 1200 BC. Then the whole eastern Mediterranean was brought in great turmoil by attacks of the Sea People, as they were called in Egyptian papyri. Many cities on the coasts and on islands such as Cyprus, were destroyed or abandoned. The Hittite Empire then split into separate states. (4)

In the eleventh century BC. the Phoenicians appear. They inhabit the eastern coastal region of the Levant in the eastern part of the Mediterranean, they were traders and established colonies, first in Cyprus "Alashiya"), then in Sardinia and they sailed past Gibraltar to the Atlantic coasts in Morocco and Portugal, where she won gold, silver and tin and also settled colonies. The most distant colony was, at present Cadiz.

Santa Trega

Fort on the hills in Galicia in the northwest of Spain.

In Santa Trega on the Spanish-Portuguese border are round stone houses with small cobbled streets and views of the Minho River in Portugal. Here was a fort that gave habitat to 2,500 people. Until now, archaeologists believe it was inhabited for 500 years, about 2,500 years ago , and finally destroyed by the arrival of the Romans. In other words, it provides a clear example of indigenous communities, pre-Roman, iron age.

This hillfort has many similarities to those of the UK , including the artistic drawings that many describe as Celtic. But they have also developed their own unique tradition, known throughout Spain as Castro Culture. Among the waste was found pottery of the Phoenician world. (5)

*

In the story above, I try to describe our walk through history.

There are still many scenarios possible. We can descend from the first Neolithic farmers from the southern branch. Our farthest ancestors can come from the Neolithic "Hoguettiens". We may have come later in Roman times and are descendants of a Roman legion soldier. After 25 years of faithful service, they received land, often when it was fertile land, and that was our region, in the places where they had served. The northern boundary of the Roman Empire was from the fourth century until the end, where the language line lies on the Roman road from Cologne to Boulogne sur Mer, across Belgium.

Members of our subgroup are now found first in the Levant and in Cyprus, but also in Armenia, Saudi Arabia, Sardinia, on the Löss lands on the ancient Roman northern way through Belgium, and in England

Every new find usually shed some more light on our walk through the past.

G-FGC6669 tree

The Timeline of G-FGC6669

*

On this site treated G - Subgroups
All
Haplogroups
G
M201
G2a2a
PF3147
G2a2a1a1b
FGC6618
G2a2a1a1b1
FGC6634 (Dutch)

Home
Genetics
Contact

Auteur: Boed Marres, Amsterdam,

last edit: