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G - FGC6669

Gallia Belgica

The Fertile Crescent

Nederlandse vlag
Er is een Nederlandse versie
Belgische vlag


The history of subgroup G2a2a1a1 - FGC6669

Cappadocia, Central Anatolia, Turkey

In Anatolia in the pre-ceramic Neolithic Boncuklu are found the oldest archaeologic remains of this clade dated 10,300 BP.

Remains from members of our father clade G-PF3147 who lived in the later Pottery Neolithic in Tepecik-Çiftlik are dated 8,500 BP. (1)

Our ancestor who was the founder of FGC6669 lived 11,000 years ago in this region. He was the son of an PF3177 man.





About 9800 ago the first cultivated grain appears "Emmer wheat". The archaeological-botanical remains of Boncuklu Höyük in west Anatolia, of Çatal Höyük in southern Anatolia and Chogha Golan in the Zagros Mountains of western Iran are the oldest examples of real agricultural cultures.

A strong climate change occurred 8,500 years ago and this resulted in a sustained dry period in the Middle East, the still continuing drought. The country attenuates. Agriculture that has led to a large population languishes.

Leaving the Region

As a result of population pressure and lack of food the G People leaved the region and spread in all directions, to Pakistan, to the Caucasus and westward to Europe. They brought the farming culture in Europe and Asia.

The beginning of expansion to Europe was already before 8500 BP to three regions in west Anatolia: the lake area near Antalya, the coasts on both sides of the Aegean sea, and in the Northwest of Anatolia around the Marmara Sea at Barcin.


Possible migrations of G2a2a-PF3147 and G2a2b-L30 via Cardial Ware and Starcevo / LBT Cultures.

From there they go to Europe in two groups in two different ways. One by sea, the Mediterranean group and one across the country, the continental group.


The Continental group goes through Macedonia to Serbia and through the valleys of the Morava and Danube to Hungary. They reach the Hungarian plain 8000 years ago. Here are many archaeological finds of them. They continue along the Danube and the Rhine to Western Europe. They were the first European Neolithic farmers and after the characteristic decorations of their pottery this is called the Linear Band Culture

In southern Limburg, the Hesbaye and Condroz, their culture flourishes from 7,800 years BP. They meet the Hoguettians here. Through Lorraine, a branch went through the basin of Paris to the Channel and Hainaut.


The Maritime group goes from the Aegean maritime region along the coasts of Anatolia and the Levant to Cyprus and Crete. They are the carriers of the Cardial ware culture

They reach in 8,200 BP Italy and then approximately 7,500 BP the Spanish coast, Later Portugal is reached along the Spanish coasts. Not only the coasts of the country were colonized but also the islands, such as Corsica and Sardinia, and the interior to the Italian Alps

A part goes in France north along the Rhône and Loire to the Atlantic coast. Their characteristic pottery found in Normandy near La Hoguette. These Hoguettians are also found across the Rhine at Stuttgart and Worms. They were also in South Limburg where they lived next to the continental LBK branch. They may have arrived at the same time.

It is very likely that many of these have taken the crossing to Britain, included Ireland. They will have taken the shortest crossing near Calais. The British Neolithic farmers were genetically comparable to contemporary populations in continental Europe, and especially to the Neolithic Iberians, residents of the Spanish east coast, suggesting that some of the peasant families in Britain came along the Mediterranean and not the continental way along the Danube.

It looks that part of the FGC6669 group stayed in the region. After a thousand year there is one descendant FGC6669* (The asterisk signifies that this is a terminal branch) whose offspring now lives on the Italian Mediterranean Island Sardinia.

From FGC6669 jumped around 10,200 before present our branch FGC6663.



One known FGC6663* is an Saudi Arabian.

Between 7,500 and 7,000 BP (with 95% certainty between 8,600 and 5,900 BP)
G-FGC6663 divides in the two sons of one man into two branches.



This group is follows here under.


This group is described on an own page.



Formed 7.800 ybp & TMRCA 4.400 ybp

The branch M286 surely stayed long in the middle East.
M286* are in western Turkey, Lebanon, Cyprus, Armenia, Georgia, France and Germany

Two branches nowadays there divided in least 5 family lines live in South England, but also in the Lebanon.


Formed 4.400 ybp & TMRCA 3.300 ybp

In this clade originated 3,300 years ago, two head branches, a mixed Lebanese / English group, and several families in a purely British group.



Formed & TMRCA 3.300 ybp

A mixed Lebanese / English group


Formed 3.300 ybp & TMRCA 500 ybp

Two English family groups


It is still dark to us how it went. When he stayed in the original region. He was probably an Aegean farmer, an inhabitant of Troy and have fought under Patroclos against the Achaeans.

More east was the empire of the Hatti to about 4,000 years ago existed. Their language was akin to the ancient Caucasian languages. Çatalhöyük was in part of the region and was about 185 km south of their capital of Hattusa.

Hattusa is around 1700 v. Chr. under the authority of a Hittite dynasty, who a short time before had founded the first Hittite kingdom.

Hittite Empire

The extensive Hittite Empire (red) replaces around 1290 AC Hatti and borders the Egyptian empire (green) (2)

The empire of the Hittite dynasty existed between about 1700 and 1200 BC. Then the whole eastern Mediterranean was brought in great turmoil by attacks of the Sea People, as they were called in Egyptian papyri. Many cities on the coasts and on islands such as Cyprus, were destroyed or abandoned. The Hittite Empire then split into separate states. (3)

G-FGC6669 tree

The Timeline of G-FGC6669


Here we present the matching groups

Note: These are based on the haplotype with STRs.
The TMRCA is only indicative in the green squares, and probably more in the yellow ones. In the red and bleu ones it may be the double to quadruple and in the whites even to op to 10 times more then indicated.
This is due to convergence, what means reverse and parallel mutations.

M286_GD M286_TMRCA
Europa Google Earth-G2a2a2a

(cursor on image enlarges)


men have red dots.


men have marron dots.


men have yellow dots.


men have blue dots.


On this site treated G - Subgroups
FGC6634 (Dutch)


Auteur: Boed Marres, Amsterdam,

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