The haplogroup G distibution

The haplogroup G distribution in Eurasia.

G - M201


An Y-DNA Haplogroup G discussion group.

The Origin

Haplogroup G descends from haplogroup F, which is thought to represent the second major migration of Homo sapiens out of Africa, at least 60,000 years ago. While the earlier migration of haplogroups C and D had followed the coasts of South Asia as far as Oceania and the Far East, haplogroup F penetrated through the Arabian peninsula and settled in the Middle East. Its main branch, macro-haplogroup IJK would become the ancestor of 80% of modern Eurasian people.

Haplogroup G formed approximately 50,000 years ago as a side lineage of haplogroup IJK, but seems to have had a slow start, evolving in isolation for tens of thousands of years, possibly in the Near East, cut off from the wave of colonisation of Eurasia. (1) Now about 2,5 % of the World population has this haplogroup. (1a)


Haplogroup G first locations (T. Kandell).

The most probably region of origin is estimated to be in Anatolia, Armenia or western Iran. For this are two indications. First, here is the only region with co-presence of deep basal branches as well as the occurrence of high sub-haplogroup diversity of haplogroup G.

Second is the similarity between the mtDNA haplogroups found in archaeological remains of the first European immigrants after the Ice Ages and the archeological mtDNA found in Anatolia. They have the highest resemblance of mtDNA in the world.

See the map right. (2)

Neolithic mtDNA samples Derenburg

The map of Europe and Asia Minor shows the probable area of emergence of Haplogroup G in green. The decreasing spread of this group is indicated by fading from a dark to lighter green, to yellow and then to brown.

In various regions of the Near East, the so called Fertile Crescent, lived hunter-gatherers. The two best known groups are the the Baradostian, 34,000 – 20,000 ybp of the Zagros Mountains of western Iran and the Levanto-Aurignacian, 27,000 – 20,000 ybp in the Levant.

These hunters were evidently migratory throughout the territories they occupied; of permanent occupation there is no trace.

Here lived Our G forefather and his descendants split round 27,000 ybp in two subgroups. G1 probably on the east side of the community, G2 in the central and western part.

G2a-P15 arose about 20,000 ybp and grew slowly in the Fertile Crescent region as a proto-agrarian semi-sedentary hunter gatherers society. In the warm and moist Bølling-Allerød interstadial, 14,700 to 12,700 ybp there was a rapid population growth in G and as a result emerged many subgroups. They lived in a population with Pre-Pottery Neolithic Culture which existed there for about 4 milennia.

Around 10.000 ybp the earliest archaeo-botanical remains of long-term plant management in the world appears in the Fertile Crescent. It is a domesticated-type "Emmer wheat".

We see this from Chogha Golan in the Zagros mountains in West Iran, were is found the oldest G2b-M3115 to Boncuklu Höyük in west Anatolia and Çatal höyük in south Anatolia, where we assume the people of G2a2a-PF3147 and G2a2b-P303 lived. in number over 10,000 people. (3a)

The Origins of Farming in South-West Asia - db_GobekliTepe_Urfa-Region

The origins of farming in Anatolia and the fertile crescent. (3b)


Leaving the Region

As a result of population pressure and possible lack of food the G People leaved the region and spread in all directions, to Pakistan, to the Caucasus and westward to Europe. They brought the farming culture in Europe and Asia.

G1 which probably lived somewhat separated apart moved eastward to the Indus and from there North to Kazakhstan.

The G2a1 groups went to the Caucasus. The G2a2 and subgroups spread westward to Turkey and Europe, G2b went eastward to central and southern Asia.

The beginning of expansion to Europe was already before 8500 BP to three regions in west Anatolia: the lake area near Antalya, the coasts on both sides of the Aegean sea, and in the Northwest of Anatolia around the Marmara Sea at Barcin.


Possible migrations of G2a2a-PF3147 and G2a2b-L30 via Cardial Ware and Starcevo / LBK Cultures.


They entered Europe in two different ways. One by sea, the Mediterranean group and one across the country, the continental group.

A. The Continental group

The very earliest Neolithic Farmers got to Europe at Revenia in Greece around 8,600 BP. They went through Macedonia to Serbia and Bulgaria through the valleys of the Morava and Danube to Hungary.

They reach the Hungarian plain 8000 years ago. Here are many archaeological finds of them and continue along the Danube and the Rhine to Western Europe. After the characteristic decorations of their pottery this is called the Linear Band Culture, LBK.

G2a was the majority of Y lineages among the Early Neolithic Farmers of central Europe from 7,800 BP and is found there in a number of consecutive Neolithic cultures, Linearbandkeramik (LBK), flourishing about 7500-6500 ago in Germany and Italy, the Rössen Culture (RSC) flourishing about 6,400-6250 ybp, Bell Beaker culture (D: Glockenbecher-Kultur) flourishing in Europe and England from between 4850 and 4140 ybp. G remained common in many places down to the start of the Early Bronze Age around 5200 ybp when we find Ötzi and the many G2a's from Treilles in Aveyron, in Southern France.

In southern Limburg, the Hesbaye and Condroz, their culture flourishes from 7,500 years BP. They meet the Hoguettians here. Through Lorraine, a branch went through the basin of Paris to the Channel and Hainaut.

B. The Maritime group

From the coatst of the Aegean Sea they went to the Levant to Cyprus and Crete. They are the carriers of the Cardial ware culture

They reach in 8,200 BP Italy and then approximately 7,500 BP the Spanish and North African coast, Later Portugal is reached along the Spanish coasts. Not only the coasts of the country were colonized but also the islands, such as Corsica and Sardinia, and the interior to the Italian Alps

A part goes in France north along the Rhône and Loire to the Atlantic coast. Their characteristic pottery found in Normandy near La Hoguette. These Hoguettians are also found across the Rhine at Stuttgart and Worms. They were also in South Limburg where they lived next to the continental LBK branch. They may have arrived at the same time.

It is very likely that many of these have taken the crossing to Britain, included Ireland. They will have taken the shortest crossing near Calais. The British Neolithic farmers were genetically comparable to contemporary populations in continental Europe, and especially to the Neolithic Iberians, residents of the Spanish east coast, suggesting that some of the peasant families in Britain came along the Mediterranean and not the continental way along the Danube.


G2a people may have been among the first humans to have acquired the alleles for fair skin. This is seen in an Early Neolithic farmer from Germany who possessed the alleles for fair skin as found in modern Europeans, while a G2b man, archaeologic found from Wezmeh Cave in Zagros, Iran, old ± 9,250 ybp, had a relatively light skin and black hair, contemporaries in this region were partly light, partly medium tinted. A hunter-gatherer from northern Spain, tested by Olalde et al. 2014, was still dark skinned as recently as 7,000 ybp.


Suddenly in the Bonze Age G becomes extremely rare in Europe. From 6.000 ybp new peoples came from the Pontic-Caspian steppes with new cultures came and brought new Y-DNA R1 and mt-DNA. The G subgroups were greatly replaced, they remained mostly in remote habitable places as the mountain areas.


The haplogroup G distibution.
The haplogroup G distibution

The haplogroup G distibution. (4)


haplogroup G frequencies and genetic variances

Geographical distribution map of haplogroup G Frequencies and Genetic Variances (Vp) (4a)


The presence in each country of Haplogroup G in decreasing levels


70 %


40 %

The entire Caucasus, Kabardinia, Azerbaijan

30 %

Catalonia (Sp.), and Ibiza, the Kalash people in Northern-Pakistan

20 %

Iran, Armenia, Cyprus, Crete, Croatia, the Gagauzes in Bulgaria (5)

10-15 %

Corsica, Sardinia (6)

11 %

Turkey, Israel both Jews and Palestinians.

10 %

Italy increasing to the South: Northern-Italy 6%, Middle-Italy 9% and South-Italy 14%. (7)

10 %

Tirol (Austria) of whom 75% G2a2b2a1b-L497, dominant European clade (8)

10 %

Egypt. (9)

8 %,

Liege, Namur and Limburg. (16)

7,3 %,

Czech Republic, Romania. (12)

5-6 %.

Spain. (13)

5 %.

Belgium and Bulgaria. (16), (14)

4,8 %,

Netherlands. (15)

4,1 %,

Western-Europe, Berbers (Morocco) (17)

3-4 %

Poland: Slowakians: 4,9; Bavarians 3,2; Meckelenb. 1,5; Kociewie 0,5 (18)

2,6 %

UK, Northern-Europe, Hungary and Russia

1-2 %


The extremely high concentration of Haplogroup G around the Caucasus is noteworthy, especially in Northern-Ossetia-Alania.

It is assumed that there was an ancient European core population which belonged to Haplogroup G, but which was later repressed by Neolithic newcomers from other Haplogroups, particularly by haplogroup R1b. The G clades among the steppe peoples of southern Russia are a later replenishment.

In Europe G comprises 5% of the population, in France and the Benelux this is about 4%.

In Belgium, the presence of Haplogroup G, is about 10% higher then in the Netherlands, and there is a clear difference between the northern and southern parts of the Netherlands: Belgium is 4,1%, but the Netherlands is 3,7%, with most of these being found in the southern part of the country.


Haplogroup G trees

Haplogroup G tree
Haplogroup G2a1 tree Haplogroup G2b tree
Haplogroup G2a1 tree Haplogroup G2a2b tree

Haplogroup G-M201/PF2957 and his subgroups

Branched off from Haplogroup F about 50.000, ybp.


Read: Conversion of ISOGG old classification 2011 to current


G1-M342, arose about 27.000 ybp, has its highest concentrations in Iran, most are in the Near East, South Asia, Central Asia, and East Asia.



G1a1a-Z3353, arose 14,600 years ago .

G1a1a1-L1324, arose about 10.500 ybp and is found among Ashkenazi Jews, Kazakhs, Mongols, Kuwaitis.

G1a1a1a-L201, Ashkenazi Jews of Europa, Arose probaly 5,000 ybp.

G1a1a1b-L1323 Kazakhs, Argyn.

G1a1a1b1-GG93/Y12744, Kazakhs.

G1a1a1c-GG1 Mongols in Mongolia, arose probaly 5,000 ybp.

G1a1a1d-Y14914/Z34108, arose 5000 ybp. Kuwait, Syria

G1a1a1d1-Y15524, arose 1700 ybp. Kuwaitis.

G1a1a1d1a-Y35053, arose 600 ybp. Kuwaitis.

G1a1a1d1b-Z35057, arose 600 ybp. Kuwaitis.

G1a1a1d2-Z35061, arose 1700 ybp. Syrians.

G1a1a1e-Z44585, arose 1700 ybp. Syrians.

G1a1a2-GG362/Z3189, arose 13.200 Slovakia, Germany, Turkey, India (Gujaratis), n.e. Europe (Ashkenazi Jews), Kazakhs, Argyn, Iran, Arabia.

G1a1a2a-Z26332, 9.600 years.

G1a1a2a1-Z31483, Slovaks, 10.300 years.

G1a1a2b-Z31492, Gujaratis of India, 10.300 years.

G1a1b-GG313, Armenians, Bashkirs of Bashkortostan, Greeks, an Iranian and a German, Gulf Arabs and Saudis.


G1a1b1a-GG162, S-W Russia (Bashkirs).

G1a1b1a1-GG157, Bashkirs of Bashkortostan.

G1a1b1a1a-GG153, .

G1a1b1a1b-GG155, .

G1a1b1b-Z44602, Bashkirs of Bashkortostan.

G1a1b2-GG265, Armenia.


G1a2-F2885, lebanese, English, French, Nepalese, Brahui, a Han Chinese.


G1b1-Z17874, old 5700 years.

G1b1a-Z18606, Ashkenazi Jews of Europa, 5.000 years.

G1b1b-Z30744, Kuwaitis, Quataris, 5.000 years.


G2-P287/PF3140, arose probably in the fertile crescent about 27,000 years ago.

G2a-P15/PF3112, is assumed to be about 20,500, years old and started expanding after the Ice Ages, 14,500 ybp. Of the European archaelogic DNA 20% has these original clade; together with his subgroups they make 60% of the Earliest Neolithic European DNA.


G2a1a-FGC595/Z6553, (former L293) (herein or in subgroups) Uyghurs, Uzbeks, Karakalpaks, Bashkirs, Kumyks, Karachays, Tatars, some among Hungarians, Czechs, and Bulgarians and Kalash and Brahui.

G2a1a1-FGC693/Z6653, arose 10,500 ybp. 12% of the people in the North and Northwest of Georgia with a tMRCA of 7,500 BP, is of Neolithic origin in the Caucasus. spread probably with the Christian Ossetians eastward to China and Mongolia.

G2a1a1a-FGC715/Z6679, arose about 4,500 ybp.

G2a1a1a1-Z6638, old about 3,900 years, in Ossetians, Armenians, Abkhazians, Georgians, Karachays, Lezgins of Dagestan, English, Moldavians, old 4.5 ky.

G2a1a1a1a-FGC713/Z6677, in Jasz.


G2a1a1a1a1a-FGC750/Z7962, Ossetia, Turkey, Georgia.

G2a1a1a1a1a1-FGC724/Z7940, 3.9 KY., in subbranches are people from Trabzon who are likely originally of Kartvelian "Sanni" (Zan) origin and Svans.



G2a1a1a1a1a1a1a-Z7941, Ossetians.

G2a1a1a1a1a1b-FGC719, one Libyan and one Bulgarian.

G2a1a1a1a1a1b1-FGC668/Z7947, Ossetians and Georgians.

G2a1a1a1a1a1b1a-FGC705 North Ossetians.



G2a1a1a1a1a1b1b-B375, Ossetians.

G2a1a1a1a1a1c-Z40550, Northeastern coast of Turkey and an Abkhazian.

G2a1a1a1a1b-FGC1047/Z7952, English.


G2a1a1a1a1a2-Z31459, Georgians, Dzhugashvili, (Russian) Джугашвили, better known as Stalin, (Russian) Сталин, the man of steel, 3.9 KY.


G2a1a1a1a1b1-FGC1048/Z7953, English.

G2a1a1a1b-CTS8481, Moldavians.

G2a1a1a2-FGC1160, Europe (Ashkenazi Jews), Russia (Karachays, Lezgins) .


G2a1a1a2a1-FGC1107, Ashkenazis.

G2a1a1a2b-Z31219, Karachays.

G2a1a1a2b1-B296/Z31216, Karachays.

G2a1a1a2c-Z29311, Lezgins of Dagestan.

G2a1a1b-Z31455, 4.5 KY.

G2a1a1b1-Z31456, 4.5 KY.

G2a1a1b2-Z40153, 4.5 KY.

G2a1a2-Z17774, Italy, England, Pakistan (Punjabis).

G2a1a2a-Z17775, Punjabis of Pakistan, Spaniards, Italians. the Dutch family Pennings having a 13th century ancestor van der Straetten in Oirschot, Brabant and Italians, 7.0 KY.

G2a1a2a1-Z31475, Punjabis of Pakistan.


G2a1a2a1b-Z39928 Italians.

G2a1a2b-Z31451, English, 7.0 KY.

G2a1a3-Z31464, 10.0 KY, Europeans, Germans.

G2a1a3a-Z35447,Germans, 3.0 KY.

G2a1a3a1-Z35465,Germans, 3.0 KY.

G2a1a3a2-Z35443,Germans, 3.0 KY.

G2a1b-Z30702, Germans, age 16,200 years.


G2a2-L1259, age circa 17,700 yrs, from which two lines: G2a2a-PF3147, and G2a2b-L30.


G2a2a-PF3147, is the smallest of the two subgoups of G2a2. It has with its subgroups 10% of the European G. It arose round 16.800 years ago probably in what later became the first Neolithic areas of Anatolia and spread with other G groups, G-L30 and subgroups, ca 8000 ybp mostly around the Mediterranean along the South and the North coasts and the Islands as Sardinia and Corsica, and in the Balcans and Bulgaria. and is still found now in low percentages, and eastwards to Iran and Azerbaijan. However it is absent in the North Caucasus.
G-G/PF3147* is still found in Turkey, Greece, Britain, Germany and Bahrain and in LBK Neolithic sites in Germany, but also in Central Asians, Uzbeks.

G2a2a-PF3185. Germany, ancient DNA, 6200 and 5200 years ago.

G2a2a and its clades, are also treated on the Clade G2a2a page of this website.

G2a2a1-PF3148, arose circa 15,000 ybp, find in an 7,100 year old archaeological LBK site in Halberdtadt, Germany; today in Wales (Roberts).

LBK people of Halberstadt

I am also PF3148+.

G2a2a1a-PF3177, arose about 11,500 ybp and is the father of several subgroups. Not in a subgroup is an American family with English roots and the Fracalatti Sardinians.


G2a2a1a1-FGC6669, arose about 11,000 ybp. One known FGC6669* is an Italian from Sardinia.

G2a2a1a1a-FGC6663, FGC6619, arose about 10,300 ybp. TMRCA 9,100 ybp, one known FGC6663* is from the Krasnodar district (Краснодарский край) in the Northern Caucasus in Russia.

G2a2a1a1a1-Y14935, arose about 9.100 ybp. TMRCA 7,800 ybp, One known FGC6663* is an Saudi Arabian.

G2a2a1a1a1a-M286, arose 7,800 ybp. TMRCA 4,400ybp Is now found in North-West Turkey (Sakarya, not far from Barcin), Georgia, Cyprus, Lebanon, Armenia, Germany (Mecklenburg-Vorpommern), France (Strasbourg) England and Scotland.

G2a2a1a1a1a1-FGC58127, FGC58133, arose about 4,400 ybp.

G2a2a1a1a1a2~FGC58118, arose about 3,300 ybp, Suffolk, England.

G2a2a1a1a1a3~FGC59473, arose about 3,300 ybp, Lebanon.

G2a2a1a1a1a4~Z43080, arose about 3,300 ybp, England.

G2a2a1a1a1b-FGC6618/Y15220, arose about 7,800 ybp, in these sprote later three families during the transition period from Merovingian to Karolingian time in the pagus Hasbania, now Namur (Belgium) and Maastricht (Netherlands) .

G2a2a1a1b1b1-FGC6634, arose about 1,400 ybp, Dutch (Marres).

G2a2a1a1b2b2-FGC34750, arose about 1,400 ybp, Belgium (Nolet).

G2a2a1a1b3b3-FGC42426, arose about 1,400 ybp, Belgium (Slootmaekers).


G2a2a1a2-L91, arose about 11,000 years ago. In Greece archaelogic finds are in Kleitos dated 6,100 ybp and in Bulgaria 4,759 ybp.

L91 clades spread round the Mediterranean region into North Africa, Egypt (now 4%), Libya, Tunisia, the Northern Berbers of Morocco, the Royal family of Morocco, the Alouï, assumed to be descended from Ali ibn Talib, who was the son-in-law and nephew of the prophet Mohammed. Several sultanates, including the current sultans of Perlis in Malaysia, are branches of this lineage. These clade is now also found among the Bakhthiari nomads of Iran and, in Northern India, an Uyghur from China, in Czechia it is 3%. Some in the Netherlands (Albers, Maryniak, Roukens, Tardio), Germany (Cline), Alsace-Lorraine, Britain and Scandinavia.
L91* Maharashtra Brahmins.

G2a2a1a2a-FGC7739/Z6488, PF3237, archaeological found in three individuals in Barcin Turkey, 8,300 ybp, one find Bulgaria from 7.900 ybp, one in a find in Croatia from 4.700 ybp ; today in an Iranians.

G2a2a1a2a1-PF3239, Z6490, a Bell Beaker individual in Hungary from 3,700 ybp), Sardinians.

G2a2a1a2a1a-L166, is about 7.000 years old, came in Europe probably with the Bell Beaker culture and is now found in Bulgaria, Germany in Frankenland and Bavaria (Krause family), in Greece on Lemnos, in Italy on Sicily and Sardinia and in France on Corsica. (20), and in the Pundjab of Pakistan.

G2a2a1a2a1a-FGC5672/Z6500, formed 6,600 ybp, found in the mummy of the Ötzthal in Tirol, Austria, a man who lived there 5,200 ybp, in the Chalcolithic, the copper Age, popular named Ötzi.
At present in the Kraus family, from Thungen in Bavaria, Germany and in a Pakistani Punjab.

G2a2a1a2a1a1-FGC5674/Z6494, formed 6,200 ybp , Italy, Germany, Czech rep., Sardinians, Germans and in Punjabis (descendants of soldiers of Alexandros the Great of Macedonia?) with a TMRCA 5000 ybp.

reconstruction of a man found in a glacier the Alps, Südtiroler Archäologiemuseum, Bozen; Foto Ochsenreiter.

G2a2a1a2a1a1a-Z6211, formed 5000 ybp, Sardinians, Germans.


G2a2a1a2a1a1b-Z6208 Sardinia.

G2a2a1a2a1a1b1-Z31438 Punjabis.





G2a2a1a2a1b-Z6802, PF3230, Sardinians.



G2a2a1a2a1b1a1-F3940, Sardinians.

G2a2a1a2a1b1a2-PF6835, Z31443, Hispanics.









G2a2a1a2a1b2c3b-PF6833, Z6332.



G2a2a1a2a1b2d1a-PF6837, Z6852.



G2a2a1a2a2-FGC2315, 8.800 years old, archaeological find from 8,300 BP in Barcin Narmara Region NW Turkey; now in Germany, Sardinia Italy, Tunisia, France (Perez), Georgia (Mamisashvili).

G2a2a1a2a2a-Z6773, Z6301.

G2a2a1a2a2a1-Z31428, Germans.


G2a2a1a2a2b-FGC2281, Z12219, Tunisians.

G2a2a1a2b-Z42562/Z42570, TMRCA 8,200 ybp, 12 ancient skeletons are identified from Germany, Serbia, Turkey, Bulgaria, Croatia and Hungary, dating from 8200 to 4400 years ago.

G2a2a1a2b1~PH97, Iranian Bakhtiari.

G2a2a1a2b2~Z42554, Europe.

G2a2a1a2b3~CTS2080.1. South Tirol, Austria, and Denmark.

G2a2a1a2b4~Z45931, (Leigton).


G2a2a1a3-FGC34625, FGC34674 arose about 11.200 ybp, prehistoric find in Potugal, Georgians, English.

G2a2a1a3a-FGC34621 arose about 10.500 ybp, English, Georgians,

G2a2a1a4-PF3222, 13.200 years.


G2a2a1b-FGC34436, FGC34451, arose around 11.400 ybp and split a millennium later in subgroups. Is found among the Early Neolithic Farmers of Halberstadt-Sonntagsfeld in Germany 7,211-6,963 cal ybp and in archaeologic find (klei10) in Kleitos Greece 6.100 ybp.

G2a2a1b1-FGC34387, arose around 10.900, in Dravidian-speaking Brahui cattle herders and the Punjabi-speaking Pakistani (Khan).

G2a2a1b2-FGC35169, Welsh.


G2a2a2-Z36520, Formed 12,700 ybp, Europeans.

G2a2a2a-B376, Uzbek Jews.

G2a2a2b-Z36525, TMRCA 12,000 ybp

G2a2a2b1-Z36522, French.

G2a2a2b2-Z45667, Ukrainians.

G2a2a2b3-Z45700, TMRCA 2,400 years.

G2a2a2b3a-Z45657, Romanians.

G2a2a2b3b-Z45714, Z34514.2, Spaniards.


G2a2b-L30/PF3267/S126 the largest of the two subgroups of G2a arose 16,800 ybp probaly in what later became the first Neolithic areas of Anatolia. In the Neolithic this clade is found in 60%, of the Europeans. Nowadays only 5% of the Europeans have G. G-L30* are in Greece and Croatia and in some Uralic-speaking Mordvins from Russia. This group is divided into two clusters:
A. G2a2b1-M406, entered Europe along the shores of the Mediterranean,
B. G2a2b2-P303, spread through the Danube valley to western Europe as far as the United Kingdom, and south to the Iberian Peninsula and the western Mediterranean coasts and islands, where these two clusters meet. (21)

The predominantly Southern European, Mediterranean and Levant groups.

G2a2b1-M406/PF3285, originated in Turkey 14.900 ybp, and entered Italy probably about 5,000 ybp. This is the clade of Asia Minor and Southern Europe. Of the G men in Iraq, Turkey, Greece and the Balearic Islands, about 50% belong to this clade; in Georgia, 25% (G2a1a is almost 8%); in Italy, 20%; in Spain and the Netherlands, 15%; in Switzerland, 8%; Iran, 6%; and in Poland and UK, 4%.
Split in three groups presumably nearly at the same time probably in the Upper Euphrates Valley at the end of the Pre-Pottery Neolithic B (PPNB), when the climate became much hotter and drier around 8400-8200 ybp.
G2a2b1* is found in a Lebanese chistian.

G2a2b1-M3310/PF3299, Mediterranean, Greeks, Italians, Lebanese, Georgians, Armenians, Azerbaijans, Turks. Austrians



G2a2b1a1a-L14/U16, age 8,200 years, in Italians, Qatari, Middle Easterners, Sardinians, English, French, Netherlands, 4.0 KY.


G2a2b1a1b-Z17887/Y6222, formed 8100 ybp, Turkey,.


G2a2b1a1b1a-Z37368/Z377374, formed 6500 ybp. Italian.

G2a2b1a1b2-L645, Armenians, Swiss, and Germans.

G2a2b1a2-M3302, Turkey (Armenians), Pakistan (Pashtuns), Italy, U.K..



G2a2b1b-PF3293, age 8,700 ybp, Middle East, Sardinia, Kazakhstan (originally from Ukraine), Palestinians and Sephardic and Ashkenazi Jews.

G2a2b1b1-PF3296/PF3316, age 7,300 years, in Iran, Kazakhstan (Russia), Druzes, Italians. Sardinians, in the Netherlands, Ashkenazi Jews.

G2a2b1b1a Z30795.


G2a2b1b1a1a~PF3286, Z6348, PF6848, Sultans Ba'Alawis of Yemen, Sultans of Siak on Sumatra-Indonesia, Richard III of England, so probablement les Maisons de Plantagenet et d'Anjou.



G2a2b1b1a2-S11415, Sardinians.


G2a2b1b1a2a1-Z6029, Malta (?)

G2a2b1b1a2a1a-Z31414, Sardinians.





G2a2b1b1b~ Z44348.

G2a2b1c-Z6340. Sardinia.

G2a2b1d-CTS8450/S4387, Palestinian territory.

The predominantly central and western European groups

G2a2b2-CTS2488. Most of the Europeans of west and central Europe belong to this clade. It is also found among the Brahmins in India. It probably emerged partly from the population of hunters and gatherers in the Russian steppes. (22)

G2a2b2a-P303/Page108/PF3340/S135, is about 16.000 years old and has a high rate of occurrence among the peoples of the Northern Caucasus, in the Karbadinians, Adyghians, Avars and Ingush; and south of the Caucasus on the Caspian Sea in Gilan, northern Iran.
The majority of the G men in Russia and Europe, belong to clades of this subgroup. Lower rates are found in Iran, Pakistan and in the Middle East. It has also been seen among the Brahmins, in India and with an certain haplotype in Ashkenazi Jews. (23)

G2a2b2a1-L140/S316. The whole group with clades is the dominant G group in Europe, present in almost 80%, of G men. This group is estimated to be about 12.000 years old. The first ones came into Europa probably around 8,500 ybp. Their number is now approaching 7% of the population in some European countries, however the average is about 3%. It is present in small amounts in some parts in France iat 5% and in Italy it reaches 9%. There is an Ashkenazi cluster in northwestern Europe. G-L140* are in The Netherlands, Norway, Spain, the Carpathian Mountains, in Palestinians, Saudi Arabia and in the Dravidan speaking Brahii. (25)

G2a2b2a1a-PF3346, a Rajput in India.

G2a2b2a1a1-PF3345 is 10,400 years old

G2a2b2a1a1a-U1, is presumably 10,000 years old. The early years of U1 seem to have been during the hunter-gatherer period, before historical records were kept, so little can be said about it until scientists are able to identify U1 subgroups in ancient skeletons from that time period. The more recent aspects of the historical period are covered in the discussions of the subgroups.
The Hazara DYS393=15 occurs within the tribal group consisting of Shia Muslim men of central Afghanistan who are distinctive for their heavy intermingling with the C3 Genghis Khan, group which undoubtedly came to Afghanistan with the Mongol invasion. It is possible that the Mongol invasion brought these men from somewhere in southwest Russia, since other tribal groups in Afghanistan lack similar G members in the sampling. G2a2b2a1a1a-U1* is still in Italy.

G2a2b2a1a1a1-L13/U13/L78, is about 10,000-11,000 years old. In an archaeological find in Barcin N-W Turkey dated about 8300 ybp. In its subclades it is found among Germans, French, Swiss, northern Italians, UK an Ukraine, Belarus, Western Caucasus, Georgia, Armenia, and in small amounts outside Europe in Iranian Azeri, Arabs, Druze of the Levant, Palestinians in Lebanon and Syria and Sephardic Jews.
The Ashkenazi Jews have DYS588=13 and often DYS568=9 as well.
G2a2b2a1a1a1-L13/U13/S13* in Armenia and Italy.

G2a2b2a1a1a1a-CTS9909/Z2022, is about 4.500 years old. Most known samples come from Europe. The percentage in G samples in Europe is: Germany 16%; Italy 11%; the Netherlands 10%; France 10%; Poland 9%; Spain 9%; Ireland 6%; England 5%; Switzerland 4%. Some Arabs from Bahrain, Persian Jews from Afghanistan and Morocco berbers.

G2a2b2a1a1a1a1-FGC965/Z6759, FGC995/Z6758, 4,000 years old, has a heavy concentration in Europe.

G2a2b2a1a1a1a1a-FGC998/Z6764, has a heavy concentration in Europe also in the Netherlands, in Cyprus, Bahrain, Arabs, Algerians, Berbers in Morocco. (Mehri).

G2a2b2a1a1a1a1a1-Z29424, formed 3,600 ybp, TMRCA 3200 ybp, Germany, Swiss (Beyeler), Italy, Italian Alps (Herbet), Cypress. Poland, Jews, Hispanics, Syrians, Kurdish, and Persians.

G2a2b2a1a1a1a1a1a-L1263, formed 3100 ybp. TMRCA 2500 ybp, Turkeys, UK.

G2a2b2a1a1a1a1a1a1-Z38846, formed 2500 ybp, TMRCA 1350, Germans, Austrians, Dutch.

G2a2b2a1a1a1a1a1a1a-Z38853. formed and TMRCA 1350 ybp, Germans.

G2a2b2a1a1a1a1a1a2-Z30781, formed 3.300 ybp, TMRCA 2000, UK.

G2a2b2a1a1a1a1a2~ Z39372.

G2a2b2a1a1a1a1a3~ FGC986.

G2a2b2a1a1a1a1a4 Z42471.

G2a2b2a1a1a1a1a5 Z38875.

G2a2b2a1a1a1a1b-Z2017. formed 3.500 ybp., Spain, England, Turkey (Jews).

G2a2b2a1a1a1a1b1-Z30718, Swiss.

G2a2b2a1a1a1a2-Z30831, British Isles, Poland.

G2a2b2a1a1a1b~Z32842.2, Italy.


G2a2b2a1a1a2-L1266, 10,000 years old. includes half of the West Caucasians, like the Adyghes, Abkhazians, Circassians, Abazins and Karbardinians and Georgians.

G2a2b2a1a1a2a-L1264/L1265/L1268, found in N.W. Europe, Russia (Kabardinians), in the northwestern Caucasus, primarily among the Adyghians, but is also present among Ossetians and Tetchenen and Senkelen of Central Russia and the Urals, and Hungary.

G2a2b2a1a1a2a1-L654.2, Germans.

G2a2b2a1a1a2a2-FGC21495, age 4.700 years.

G2a2b2a1a1a2a2a-S9409, 4.2 K

G2a2b2a1a1a2a2a1-FGC21497, Belgians, 4.0 KY.

G2a2b2a1a1a2a2a2-Z31275, Kabardinians, 4.0 KY.

G2a2b2a1a1a2a2b-Z30714, Russians, age 4.200 years.

G2a2b2a1a1a2a2c-FGC21497, Belgians, age 4.200 years.

G2a2b2a1a1a2b-PH1780, 1950 years old, Georgians, Armenians Iranian Azeris, UK and some Germans.

G2a2b2a1a1a2c~Z6153, Sardinia.




G2a2b2a1a1a4~SK1154. Palestinians



G2a2b2a1a1b-L497/S317/CTS1899/PF6851/Z738, is about 10.000 years old. This is the largest European subgroup, to which half of the European G, belongs. It seems that G-L497, which is one of the most "European" of haplogroups, spread out from Western Anatolia (where it's found in small numbers) to the Danube Basin with the First Farmers, around 8400-7800 ybp. So far, the earliest branches of L497 are found in Italy and the Netherlands. The Anatolian and Aegean L497s are more "derived" (further down the tree in G-Z725), This group is distributed as follows: Tirol 80% of the G samples; Switzerland 75%; Spain, France and Germany 60%; UK 52%, the Netherlands and Italy 44%. They formed the first wave of farmers entering Europe who started the Neolithic, recognizable by the LBK culture.

G-L497 frequenties in Europe. (24a)
G-L497_frequenties in Europe

G2a2b2a1a1b-L497*, an American of Dutch origin in Gelderland.

G2a2b2a1a1b1-CTS9737/Z1815, is about 9,000 years old.

G2a2b2a1a1b1a-Z725, is 4.300 years old; is found at all European countries.

G2a2b2a1a1b1a1-L43/S147, Europe.


G2a2b2a1a1b1b-S10458, Italy, France, Poland, Germany, Netherlands (Gelre, Limb).



G2a2b2a1a1b1b1a1-Z31358, UK.

G2a2b2a1a1b1b1a2-Z31352, Germany.

G2a2b2a1a1b1b1b-Z40138, UK

G2a2b2a1a1b1b2~ Z40476

G2a2b2a1a1b2-Z27264, Italy, South-east France, Switzerland

G2a2b2a1a1b2a-Z39088, Italy, Netherlands, 6 KY .


G2a2b2a1a1c-CTS342, originated about 10,5 KY ago somewhere in Anatolia or the Fertile Crescent. Spread soon in all directions. Is found in archeological remains dated 8,600 ybp in Barcin, Northwest Anatolia, near the Sea of Marmara. Is now divided in several subgroups in a quarter of all Arabian G, Saudi. It spread across North Africa and it's found among 13% of Berbers from Jerba Island, Tunisia, Ashkenazi Jews. In Africa. In Europe in Ashkenazi Jews and in Romania, Italy, Sardinia, Iberia. France, Scandinavia and in a Dutchman. There is a small group in the UK Islands, which has a common ancestor from the Middle Ages. and at least in a Han Chinese man from Beijing,

G2a2b2a1a1c1-Z724, N. Italy, Denmark, a tiny number of Ossetians and a Han Chinese from Beijing, and a group in Gao, Mali (Africa) problaby from Morocco.

G2a2b2a1a1c1a-CTS5990/Z1903 The earliest archaelogical find is from Chalcolithic Bulgaria around 6700 ybp, the TMRCA of all G-Z1903s today is at 4800 ybp. Now in Greece, Italy, Spain, Germany, France, Belgium, Netherlands, UK., Sardinians and in Ashkenazi Jews.

G2a2b2a1a1c1a1-CTS7045, arose probably around 4500 ybp.

G2a2b2a1a1c1a1a-L640, England, Ireland.



G2a2b2a1a1c1a1b-Z3428, Berbers.

G2a2b2a1a1c1a1b1-Z26414, Berbers.

G2a2b2a1a1c1a1b1a-FGC7477/Z6523, Sierra Leone, n.e. Europe (Ashkenazi Jews), Romania, U.K.


G2a2b2a1a1c1a1b1a1a-FGC248/FGC263, Ashkenazi Jews.

G2a2b2a1a1c1a1b1a1b-FGC31715, exist for abt 1,500 yrs, Ashkenazi Jews.


G2a2b2a1a1c1a1b1b-FGC23437, Europeans.


G2a2b2a1a1c3a2-Z6032, Sardinians, French, Sephardim, Ashkenazim and Araite jews, Christian Arabs from Syria and Lebanon, Berbers, Mende people from Sierra Leone, Ossetians, and a Han Chinese from Manchuria.





G2a2b2a1a1c1a2-Z40433, Scandinavians.


G2a2b2a1a1c2a-L660, England, Poland.

G2a2b2a1a1c2b-Z16670, 19th century rulers of nowadays Saudi Arabia.


G2a2b2a1a1c2b2-Z31206, Middle easterens.

G2a2b2a1a1c3-PF4202, split drectly off from G-CTS342 so originated about 10,5 KY ago, Western Europe, Norwegians.



G2a2b2a1a1c3a2~Z43844 Italy, Ireland.



G2a2b2a1a1d-S1415, Norwegians.

G2a2b2a1a1e-Z30708, Middle Easterners, 11.000 years.






G2a2b2a1a2~Z38302. Portugal.

G2a2b2a1b-Z30527, 11.000 years. Ukrainians, Iraqi Jews.

G2a2b2a1h-S1415, Iberians, 11.000 years.


G2a2b2a2-M278, Greeks, Spanish, present in the Medieval Jewish population of Spain in the 14th century.

G2a2b2a3-Z6885, archaeological finds have been made in the Anatolian Neolithic from Barcin in Northwest Turkey from c. 8300 BP (6500-6200 BCE) and the Linear Ceramic Culture - LBK - from Scheltz, Austria, 6950 BP (5500-4500 BCE.
And nowadays in Armenians, Syrians, Al-Muntafiq Tribe of Southern Iraq (Hellenistic Greeks from the Seleucid Empire?) and Arma people an ethnic group in subsaharan Africa in the Niger River, descended from Moroccan and Andalusi invaders of the 16th century.

G2a2b2a3a-Z39310. Archaeological find in a sample dated 7000 BP c. 5040-4850 cal BCE from the El Toro Cave in Antequera near Málaga, South Spain. This Andalusian Early Neolithic culture is thought to have arrived just prior to the Cardial technology.
Italians, Spaniards.




G2a2b2a3b1~ CTS7114.

G2a2b2a3b2~ Z40218.

G2a2b2a4-Z30503, Brahui, Kalash and Punjabis.

G2a2b2a4a-Z40458. Iraqis.

G2a2b2a4a1-Z30522. Lyengar Brahmins and Bhargava in India.


G2a2b2a4b-Z31387 Punjabi and Kalash.

G2a2b2a5~ M426, Pakistan (Kalash).

G2a2b2a6~ Z6030, Sardinian Italy.

G2a2b2a7~ PF3912.

G2a2b2a8~ L288.2.

G2a2b2a9~ PF4685/Z2354.


G2a2b2b-PF3359, Musawi Sayyid from Iraq, Armenians, Southeastern Turks, and Southwest Iranians, Arabs, Crimean Tatars, a Kabardinian, a Moksha, a couple of Armenians, non-Ashkenazi Jews, a Central Greek, Cretans, Sardinians (here it is 25% of the G), Corsicans, a Hungarian, a German, a Brit, and in the Netherlands.

G2a2b2b1-F1193/PF3362, UK. Netherlands, Dutch Ashkenazi.

G2a2b2b1a-F872/PF3355/PF3422, Epipaleolithic Central Anatolia Boncuklu, arose about 10,000 ybp.

G2a2b2b1a1-PF3378, two Chaloclithic samples from El Mirador Cave, Atapuerca, Burgos, Spain, 4880-4630 ybp, in Italia, Sardinia and Germany.

G2a2b2b1a1a-PF3420/Z7024, is in the oldest G sample so far, from Boncuklu in Central Anatola, Turkey 10,200 years BP, a number in the Southern Netherlands, in Sardinia, in Germany and the UK.








G2a2b2b1a2a-F2686.2, UK.


G2a2b2b1a2a1a-M310.2, PF2402.2.

G2a2b2b1a2a1b-F807, FGC7262 , Netherlands.

G2a2b2b2-CTS293, Palestina, England?


G2b-M3115, (former G2c), most all are in subgroups.

G2b1-M377, is found in Lachin, Nagorno-Karabakh, in an Armenian noble family, in native Syrian Christians and their Lebanese Maronite descendants, in Italy, Sicily, Spain, Saudis of Khorasani origin, Kars Province Turkey, as well as among Ashkenazi Jews and Pashtuns in Pakistan where it reaches till 14.7% in who claim Israelite ancestry and to be descended from a regular Jewish "Benjaminite" community in Khroasan (Eastern Greater Iran) who converted to Islam at the time of the Mongol Invasion in 1220 CE.

G2b1a-M283, Italians in Sicily, Pakistani, Afghans.

G2b1a1-M9737, Punjabis of Pakistan

G2b1b-FGC32402/Y12975. arose about 5,500 ybp.

G2b1b1-FGC35913/Y15861/Z35318 , formed 1250 ybp, Ashkenazim.

G2b1b1a-FGC35915/Y15862/Z35608. Lithuanian Jewish and Belarus who are probably come from France. TMRCA of the parent 1100 ybp.

G2b1b1b- . .

G2b1b2-FGC32409/Y14601, formed 1250 ybp, Ashkenazim. Roemanians and Ukrainiens.

G2b1b2a-FGC32413/Y14600, formed 1250 ybp, Ashkenazim. Roemanians and Ukrainiens.




G2b2-FGC3022, Italy, Armenians in Turkey, .

G2b2a Z8022, an archeological find in the Zagros Mountains of Iran, 9,250 cal.BP, now in North Jordan and South Syria, but, Southern Syrians. Jordanians, Italians.


G2b2b-Z37343, Armenians.



Wezmeh Cave Zagros, Iran

The oldest archaeologically find, which has been determined to belong to the Y-DNA haplogroup G, is a man who had G2b. His remains are found in the Wezmeh Cave in the Zagros Mountains, the far west of Iran. He lived 9,250 cal.BP. He most likely had brown eyes, relatively light skin, and black hair, although Neolithic Iranians carried reduced pigmentation-associated alleles in several genes and derived alleles at 7 of the 12 loci showing the strongest signatures of selection in ancient Eurasians.




Early Neolithic G2b man (25a)

Cappadocia, Central Anatolia, Turkey

Human remains are excavated from two different Neolithic settlements in Cappadocia in central Anatolia, in l91 and in Tepecik-Çiftlik and hereof were investigated a total of nine ancient individuals, 4 excavated in Boncuklu and 5 in Tepecik-Çiftlik. In both was one man with haplogroup G.

In the Aceramic Neolithic Boncuklu an G man is found (Bon004) who lived 8,300 BCE, 10,300 ybp. and his clade is G2a2b2b-PF3258.

In the Pottery Neolithic Tepecik-Çiftlik the G man (Tep003) lived circa 6,500 BCE, 8,500 ybp, and he is G2a2a-PF3147, because he is PF2159+.






Neolithic Aegeans

G2a2b2a1a1-L78 an equivalent of L13 is found in an archaeological find in Barcin N-W Turkey dated about 8300 ybp and G2a2a1b-L91 is the oldest archaeologically found G in Europe from a burial ground in Kleitos in Northern Greece dated round thre same time. Here farming and sedentism first appeared in Mediterranean and Central European.

North Aegean archaeological sites

North Aegean archaeological sites investigated in Turkey and Greece (25b)


Derenburg Germany

The second oldest archaeologically found G in Europe comes from a neolithic burial ground at Derenburg, in Saxen-Anhalt (Germany). It is dated between 7.000 and 7,500, ybp. Y-DNA SNP's from three men could be determined: two men had Haplogroup F, and one man had G2a2b2. The STR's were not determined, so the haplotypes are not known. (26)

Stone tumb near Derenburg in Sachsen Anhalt (Dld.)

One of the many stone tumbs near Derenburg
in Sachsen Anhalt (Germany)

Contents of a stone tumb near Derenburg in Germany

The dead person was buried on his left side with his head facing east.


Starvečo and LBK Culture in Hungary

From nearly the same period are the archaelogical finds in Starvečo in North-West Hungary and the finds of the Linear Band culture in the Carpathian Plane in Central Hungary, 7800 to 6900 ybp, old. These are the earliest settlements of the Neolithic culture in Europe.

From seventeen men the Y-DNA haplogroup could be determinated. Haplogroup F is found in 23,5%, G2a in 18%, in whom, based on haplotypes, almost certainly was G-PF3147, including G-L91. The rest 41%, had G-L30. Total G, is nearly 60%. The others had I1-P37. (27)


Halberstadt in Germany

G2a2a1-PF3170, and negative for subgroups is found in an ancient skeleton dated about 7000 years old, in a man buried in Halberstadt, Germany. (26a)



Ötzthal Tirol Austria

The thirth second oldest archaeological find of Haplogroup G, is the ice mummy who was found over a decade ago in a glacier at the edge of the Ötzthal, in Tirol in Austria. It is the mummy of a man who lived during late Neolithic times, at the beginning of the Copper Age. His age is calculated to be 5,300 years, and his genome has been well researched. His haplogroup is G2a2a1b1-L166. His mt-Haplogroup is K1. (28)

This is the oldest human mummy, found to date in Europe and had been well preserved by glacial ice. He had brown eyes, was lactase intolerant, about 55 years old, 5 feet 2.5 inches tall, and probably a hunter. He had a very long bow with him, about 6 feet long, and fourteen arrows, some not yet finished. He also had a copper ax made of 99.7% pure copper. He wore sturdy clothes which had been patched, a hat, and shoes with soles made of bearskin. Considering this relatively expensive clothing as well as tools for hunting and working, it is thought that he may have been a leader. From the chemical analysis of his bones and teeth, one can conclude that he must have be born in the region Bolzano and during a long time of his live lived in Winschgau on the South Slopes of the Italian Alps.

He had significant arteriosclerosis, a worm infection, Lyme's disease and joint disorders which may have been the result of this last infection. He had a fresh arrow wound in the shoulder and quite likely bled to death. An arrowhead was found high in his chest; the wooden arrow shaft had been removed, probably by himself. His precious belongings were not removed at the time. He had a full stomach, having recently eaten flour products and deer meat, but he had no food with him. He had rows of dashes tattooed on one knee and on his back, at the lumbar vertebrae, which possibly had a magical-medical significance. And yes, bloodstains from four other persons were found on his clothing, but nothing has yet been announced concerning these.

De mummy Ötzi in the glacier of the Ötzthal

Ötzi the iceman

Ötzi reconstruction

Reconstruction of Ötzi the iceman from the Ötzthal (29)


Treilles (Fr.)

25 graves from about 5000 years, ago were found in a large Neolithic burial mound in Treilles, Languedoc-Roussillon, in France. Twenty of the twenty-five men had G2a, based on their markers. This is a remarkably high rate of 80%. The other 20% had R1b, and E1b1b.

All of the G men had the same haplotype, so they were closely related family members.

   Marker     393   390    19   391   385a   385b   439   389I   392   389II   458   437   448   GATA 
 456   438   635 
  DYS value   14 23 15 10 13 15 11 12 11 30 18 16 20 10 14 10 21

De Treille markers (31)

The low percentage <2% of shared lineages between Treilles and current populations, and the fact that the ancestral and current G2a haplotypes do not seem related, imply that the G2a lineage of Treilles was probably lost between the end of the Neolithic and today.


Ergoldingen (Germany)

In an early medieval grave in Ergoldingen, in Bavaria (Germany), dated round 670 AD, six men were buried together, two were G2a2, one must have been G2a2a-PF3147 because of his doule DYD19 values, the other had G-Z2022, so was G2a2b2a1a1a1a-CTS9909. They were buried with their swords, spears, and shields, so they were probably knights.

  Marker    393    19   391   385a   385b   426   388   439   389 I   392   389 II   458   459a   459b   447   437   448   449  GATA
 438   481   446 
  DYS value warrior 1   14  14-15        11 13 11 12 11 29 16 9 9 23 16       10 21 21
  DYS value warrior 2   13   10 15 15 11 12   12 11 29 19 9 9     22 27 12 11 21 16

The markers of the 7th century Bavarian cavalrymen. (32)


The arrival of Haplogroup G in Asia and Europe

Haplogroup G, must have entered Europe during the earliest Neolithic. The oldest archaeological graves are found in Hungary, later follow Germany, Italy, France and Spain. Today G is a marginal group in Europe but in the time of the the first farmers nearly 60% of the European population had G. They brought the Linear Band Culture (LBK). They replaced the hunter-gatherers for a big deal and with them the old Haplogroups.

Most oldest G samples belong to G2a2a-PF3147, and G2a2b-L30. They form nowadays only 5% of the European population.

Dominant newcomers

Today haplogroup R1b1a2-M269, is dominant in Western-Europe, occurring at rates between 50% and 80%. Scholars increasingly think that this haplogroup emerged about 8.000 ybp in Asia Minor and then spread to Europe. They were the second wave of immigrants from Anatolia, bringing with them the Chalcolithic culture , the Copperage in the late Neolithic. After their arrival in Europe, a population explosion occurred within this group and within 1000 years they became the dominant group in an area stretching from Hungary to the Atlantic Ocean.

During the following millennia, they pushed the resident population of hunter-gatherers to the peripheries: to the Alps, like the Iceman with his bow; to the Islands of the Mediterranean, like Sardinia; and to the UK Isles. This explains the relatively high concentrations of haplogroup G in these regions. (39)

The arrival of this new population is also evidenced in the mtDNA samples, which also show a major change during this same time period: the resident mtDNA being pushed to the edges of Europe.

Comprehensive population genetic analyses utilizing large databases of present-day populations have disclosed genetic affinities of the Linear Pottery Culture with the contemporary Near East, Turkey and the Caucasus, supporting the theory of a genetic influx from this region into Central Europe at the time of the advent of farming, and explaining the apparent genetic discontinuity between foragers and farmers. (41)

With the invasion of the Goths at the beginning of our era, it is assumed that the eastern Alans peoples moved to the Caucasus, to what is now Northern-Ossetia-Alania. The highest rate of occurrence of haplogroup G2a1a1-FGC693, is in the Caucasus. The question remains whether this clade came in the Caucasus from the North or from the South. It is thought more and more that the latter is the case. (42)

This Alan DNA is discussed along with their history on the Alans page of this website.


On this site treated G - Subgroups
FGC6634 (Dutch)


Auteur: Boed Marres, Amsterdam,

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