G2a2a - PF3147

reconstruction of a man found in a glacier the Alps, Südtiroler Archäologiemuseum, Bozen; Foto Ochsenreiter.



Excavations in Tepecik-Çiftlik, Turkey (1)

G-PF3147 is the little twin brother of G-L30. Together they count for round 5% of the European G-PF3147 counts for about 0,5%.

The two groups split round 16.800 years ago in the Fertile Crescent where these G men developed the Neolithic agrarian culture.

The oldest archaelogic find of G-PF3147 (as PF3259) comes from Tepecik-Çiftlik, Cappadocia, Central Anatolia, between 10.300 and 7,800 calibrated (cal) YBP.
Note that is halfway the origin and now. (2)

Hasan dagi

Mount Hasan where the G-PF3147 people of Tepecik-Çiftlik got their obsidian (said Ted Kandel)

In the Big Spread caused by an abrupt climate change about 8000 years ago they left the region in mixed G groups. G-L30 and a part of G-PF3147 went to west Anatolia and then further to Central Europe through the Balkans and to Western Europe. They brought with them the Early Neolithic culture where it is found with a number of consecutive cultures, Linearbandkeramik (LBK), flourishing about 7500-6500 ago in Germany and Italy, the Rössen Culture (RSC) flourishing about 6,400-6250 years ago, Bell Beaker culture (D: Glockenbecher-Kultur) flourishing in Europe and England from between 4850 and 4140 YBP.

An other part went along the coast of the Mediterranean to Greece, Italy Southern France and to Spain and brought there the Cardial Impressive Culture. Other groups went eastwards to Iran, Azerbaijan and the Indus into Pakistan.

G-PF3147* is still found in Turkey, Greece, Britain, Germany and Bahrain and in LBK Neolithic sites in Germany and in Spain.

G remained the most common group in Central Europe till the Bronze Age around 5200 ybp, when we find Ötzi and the many G2a's from Treilles in Aveyron, in Southern France.


Possible Migrations of G2a2a and G2a2b.

Europe-diffusion-farming-Eupedia_europe_ G.G2a

Diffusion of farming through Europa.

The Hesbaye is the round area beneath Holland, tinted in the color of 5800 - 5300 years BCE, so 7.800 - 7.200 years before now.


Y-DNA in the time of the LBK Culture in Europe

The Mesolithic European Haplogroups are C, F and I. Some I1, most with haplogroup I1a1-P37, and also I2 lineages of hunter-gatherers assimilated with the Near Eastern farmers who had made their way into Europe across the Balkans and the Mediterranean shores.

In the burial grounds in Starvečo and the Hungarian Plane is found the first European G2a with the subgroups G2a2a-PF3147, including G-L91 and G2a2b-L30. Two-thirds had a G clade. (3)

Neolithic individuals from Northwest Anatolia from about 8300 years ago show genetically a homogeneous society with a strong resemblance to the first farmers in Europe. They have the same high percentage G2a that in composition is similar to that of the first European farmers, they have also according admixture analyses a strong genetic relationship. This indicates a very probable origin of European farmers from this area.

The first European farmers have mixtures of Neolithic Anatolians and a limited mixing with the indigenous European hunter-gatherers. Such a picture we see also in the Anatolians.

We see also that both the first Anatolian peasants as well as the first European farmers later were largely were supplanted by later newcomers, R1a and R1b. (4).


G2a2a – PF3147 – tree


G2a2a – PF3147 – tree with nationalities

PF3147 SNP tree; G2a2a SNP tree



Halberstadt in Germany

G2a2a1-PF3170 and negative for subgroups is found in an ancient skeleton dated about 7000 years old, in a man buried in Halberstadt, Germany.

Ergoldingen in Germany

In an early medieval grave in Ergoldingen in Bavaria (Germany), dated round 670 AD, six men were buried together. Apparent from the dual DYS19 value was definitely at least one of them G2a2a-PF3147. They were buried with their swords, spears, and shields, so they were probably knights.

  Marker    393    19   391   385a   385b   426   388   439   389 I   392   389 II   458   459a   459b   447   437   448   449  GATA
  DYS value warrior 1   14  14-15        11 13 11 12 11 29 16 9 9 23 16       10
  DYS value warrior 2   13   10 15 15 11 12   12 11 29 19 9 9     22 27 12 11

The markers of the 7th century Bavarian cavalrymen. (5)


G2a2a1a - PF3177

The age of this group is estimated to be 11,500 years old.

He divides into four subgroups.


1.   G2a2a1a1 - FGC6669

The age of this group is about 11,000 years old.

This clade branched 7.800 years ago into two subgroups:
M286   and   FGC6634.

(This whole clade is described on page: family clade)


3.   G2a2a1a2-L91+

The age of this group is estimated to be 9,300 years old.

He divides into four subgroups: a,b,c,d.

a. G2a2a1a2a - PF3239+

In a quarter of the Corsican and Sardinian G

G2a2a1a2a1 - L166+
G2a2a1a2a1a - FGC5672
reconstruction of a man found in a glacier the Alps, Südtiroler Archäologiemuseum, Bozen; Foto Ochsenreiter.

The mummy of the Ötzthal in Tirol, a man who lived there 5300 years BP.
At present also the German Kraus family and a Pakistani family.


b. G2a2a1a2b - FGC2315

Divides in two

G2a2a1a2b1 - Z12218


G2a2a1a2b2 - Z31428h6



c. G2a2a1a2c - CTS2080



d. G2a2a1a2d - Z31235


3.  G2a2a1a3 - FGC34625

The age of this group is estimated to be 10,000 years.

Members are from Great Britain (Hendon and Dunham) and Georgia (Menabdishvili).
The TMRCA of the Britisch is about 400 years.
They and the Georgian separated 10,800 years ago. (6)



4. G2a2a1a4  PF3222



G2a2a1b - FGC34451

Divides into two subgroups.

G2a2a1b1 - FGC34387

Khan, Pakistan

G2a2a1b2 - FGC35174

Roberts, Wales


G2a2a2 - Z365207


Divides into two subgroups.

G2a2a2a - B376

Uzbek Jews

G2a2a2b - Z36522



On this site treated G - Subgroups
FGC6634 (Dutch)


Auteur: Boed Marres, Amsterdam,

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