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Whoever decides to research his pedigree will discover ancestors coming from a melting pot of peoples. Because genealogies are based on a family name inherited from the father, research centers on Y-DNA, the part of our DNA which only sons inherit from their father.

Many of us will find related families within the first five hundred years. As we go back further in time, we may find relatives in other parts of Europe. And if we go back more than two thousand years, we will probably find our roots on other continents. Asia? Africa?

DNA can provide a great deal of information. Of all the possibilities available, genealogists primarily use only the Y-DNA, that part which is passed down from father to son, as surnames are passed down. Anthropologists also use Y-DNA, but for them the mitochondrial DNA, or mt-DNA, is at least just as important ‑ this is the DNA which is passed down through the mother.

The oldest common ancestor has been given the code A. His direct descendants are now living in Cameroon in Africa. The time to this most recent common ancestor (TMRCA) is considered to be 250.000 years. This is older than the age of any archaeologically found human fossils, which is about 200.000 years old, and also much older than the previously estimated time which, until recently, had been set at 140.000 years.

All people in the world seem to descend from a woman that to alleged lived around 200.000 years ago in Africa, somewhat younger.


Adam and Eve by Michelangelo Buonarroti (1475-1564) in the Sistine Chapell in the Vatican.


Y-DNA haplogroups

All Y-DNA haplogroups have sprouted from the common ancestor of all humans. He lived in Africa and had haplogroup A00-AF4.

Y-DNA boom -14GG San Diego, Thomas Krahn et alii

Y-DNA boom - 14GG San Diego 2016. (17)

Y-DNA Haplogroep A00-AF6/L1284.
A00-AF6/L1284* is still present at six men in Cameroon. It is considered that the time to their most recent common ancestor (TMRCA) 250,000 jaar.
A0-VCTS2809/L991 split 140,000 years ago off.
A1-P305 split off about the same time, 140.000 jaar ago, and is now in Northwest Africa
A1b1a1-M14 exists in the click language speaking Khoisan populations.
A1b1b-M32 is mainly distributed among the Khoisan and in East Africa. Some are now living in the Arabian Peninsula. They came there probably as slaves.
A1b1a-L602, V50
A1b1b-M32 is vooral verspreid onder de Khoisan en in Oost Afrika. Enkele leven nu op het Arabisch schiereiland. Mogelijk zijn zij daar als slaven terechtgekomen.

Y-DNA Haplogroup B-M60 originated in Africa about 50,000 years ago. Stems from A4-M42. This man and his descendants remained in Africa. They live there now scattered in small concentrations among hunter-gatherers of Ethiopia and Sudan, and at the click language speakers.
B2a-M150 in Cameroon, East Africa and the Bantu in South Africa.
B2a1a-M109 comprise approximately 2.3% of African-Americans.
B2b-M112 is present among pygmies and the Koisan in South Africa.

Y-DNA Haplogroup C-M130 stems from CDEF-M168, arose about 90.000 years ago, shortly after the departure of the modern human from Africa. He travelled across the southern Arabian peninsula, through Pakistan and India, and on to Sri Lanka, Southeast Asia, Japan, Polynesia and Australia.
C-M130 * is found in a 37,000 year old skeleton in Kostenki in Russia, today it is still present in India, Sri Lanka and Southeast Asia, and in aboriginal Australians (5% of all C).
C1-F3393/Z1426 in Japan and in Australian Aboriginies.
C1a-CTS11043 is a generation in between.
C1a1-M8 Japanese.
C1a1a P121.
C1a1a1 CTS6678 or CTS11058 Japanese.
C1a1a1a CTS490.
C1a1a2 Z1356 Japanese
C1a2-V20 in a North West African and sporadically in Southern Europe, Nepal and Japan. Is also found in a hunter-gatherer, who died 7000 years ago in La Braña, Spain. These had a dark complexion and blue eyes.
C1a2a1-Z28010 Brits.
C1a2b-Z29329 Spaniss, Polish.
C1a2c-L38886 Northern Africa.
C1b1-M356 Saoedi Arabië en de Verenigde Arabische Emeritaten, plaatselijk in India, vooral in Gujarat 9%, en in de Brahui van Pakistan.
C1c-M38 Eastern Indonesia, particularly Papua New Guinea, on Sumba and the Northern Islands.
C1c1a-P33 in Rapa Nui (Easter Island), 90% in Samoa and Tonga and Tahiti 2/3 third of the male population.
C1c2-M208 Melanesia, Vanuatu, Samoa and Papua New Guinea.
C1d-M347 is exclusive and dominant among the indigenous people of Australia
C2-M217/P44/ 1453 originated 6,000 years ago, probably in South or Central Asia; it is in 27% of the Chinese Han population and in Korea. Even in small rates of Tibetans. It spread to northern Siberia and spread through the Bering Strait to America where it is now found among American Indian tribes along the Venezuelan-Colombian border and in the rainforests of Ecuador. In Europe it occasionally, it probably came here with the Huns at the end of the Roman Empire.
C2a-M93 een private SNP of a Japanese.
C2b-F1396/L1373 a Japanese.
C2b1a-F3918 an American Indian.
C2b1a1a-P39 only North American Indian tribes.
C2b1a1b-F1756 or F3985, DYS448 has null value, Central Asian.
C2b1b-M48 Cerntral Asians, some with double DYS19.
C2b1c-F4002 or M504, usually DYS388=14, Mongolians "Genghis Khan" group.
C2b1d-Z22424 Europeans.
C2b2-P48, in small numbers in Yakut-speaking Evenks and Yukaghir in Siberia.
C2b2a-M86/M77 in 70% of the western Evenks, 15% of the Yukaghers, 12% of the Yakut-speaking Evenks, 9% of the Tuvans and some Yakuts. Is there too in Altaian Kazaks, Todjines, Tuvinians, Yakuts, Buryats, Kalmucks and Evenks.
C2b2a1 has a number of men with a double DYS19 value, is found at Altaian Kazacks, Kalmucks, Tuvinians, Mongols and Todjis.
C2b2a1/DYS448=0 in Kazackstan.
C2e-M546/Z1338 in Central en East Azia.
C3b2b1*-M401, The House of Aisin Gioro is the imperial family of the last dynasty in Chinese history, the Qing dynasty (1644 - 1911), they originated from Jurchen tribes in North-east China, from which also the Jin dynasty (1115-1234) originates.

Y-DNA Haplogroup D-M174 stems from CDEF-M168, also arose about 50.000 years ago and is now predominant in Central and Southeast Asia.
D1-CTS11577 is in Tibet, about half of the population of Mongolia, and to a lesser degree in Central and Southeast Asia as well in 10 % of the Americans.n.
D1a-M15 is in Tibet, Mongolië, Centraal en Zuidoost Azië.
D1b-M55 is exclusively in Japan, where it arose between 12.000 and 20.000 years ago, and is now found in 35% of the population.
D1C1-P47 in Centraal Azië.
D2-L1366 is alleen op de Philippijnen.

Y-DNA Haplogroup E-M96 comes from haplogroup B. Originated in North East Africa about 40,000 YBP, spread over whole Africa with the Bantu agricultural expansion. E is also the most common lineage among African Americans. It is an old, diverse haplogroup with many branches and is found distributed throughout Africa today. It is also found at a very low frequency in North Africa and the Middle East He was one of the first emigrations of modern humans out of Africa
E1a1-M44, has been detected in the Fulbe population in Cameroon at 53%. 2-5% levels have been observed in Mali and Sudan, 18.9 KY. in Alsace-Lorraine.
E1a1a1- Z17697, 3.0 KY
E1a1a1a1-Z17696, Ashkenazi Jews of n.e. Europe
E1a1a2-Z36092, Lebanese Druze 3.0 KY
E1a1b-Z17467, became later in Africa and beyond the deepest branches and the largest distribution, England 3,3 KY
E1a1b1-Z20650, English, formed 3,1 ybp
E1a1b2-M4507, Mandenkas
E1a1b3-Z31503, formed in England, TMRCA 550 ybp.
E1a1c-Z31497, Germans 5.0KY

E1b1-P2 later spread within Africa and then travelled to Asia Minor and southern Europe.
E1b1a-L222.1 is still widely spread throughout Africa.
E1b1a2-M329 is arcncient an DNA sample from the highlands of Ethiopia 4524-4418 Cal BP.
E1b1b-M212 develops in Northwest Africa, through Asia Minor, along the Mediterranean Sea on South-Europe.

Spread of haplogroup E

E1b1b1-M35.1 Clusters are now distributed in Western and Southeastern Europe, in Asia minor, in North and West Africa.
E1b1b1a1b2-V22 in Mediterranean and Wesrtern Europe.


Y-DNA Haplogroup F-M89 stems from CDEF-M168 and CF-P143. He became the ancestor of all the Y-DNA haplogroups from G through T. His offspring now includes 90% of the world's population. He would have lived between 60,000 and 60,000 years ago and was the first modern man outside of Africa.
F-M89* at some Iranians. In one third of the archaeological records about 8000 years old in the Carpathian Plain (1/3 was G2a2b and 10% G2a), and in 7,000 years old archaeological DNA in Derenburg, Germany.
F1-P91, F2-M427 en F3-M481 occasionally found in India.

Y-DNA Haplogroup G-M201 stems from F, through M427 and F1329, about 45.000 years ago in the Middle-East. At present this is a small haplogroup with a 3% to 7% rate of occurrence in Europe, somewhat higher at places in the Alps, and increasing to 10% on the islands of Sardinia and Corsica. This haplogroup probably entered Europe in Neolithic times in several waves, together with J1 and/or J2. It is often found in archeological DNA, but has since decreased for reasons as yet unknown.
G1-L833/M285 the oldest branch, is now seen only in Iran where it accounts for 5% of the population and half of their G; elsewhereit is very scarce. There are two small Ashkenazic subgroups.
G1a-P20.is found in a small group in Kazakhstan, nearly all in subgroups.
G2a1a-L293 and its subgroups account for 50% to 70 % of the men in the Middle-Caucasus, and is also found among small groups of East Europeans, mostly Ashkenazic Jews and Lebanese Maronite Christians.
G2a2-L1259-CTS4367. is the ancestor of 90% of the European G. This group splits into two, with G2a2a accounting for 10% of the European G, and G2a2b accounting for 80% of the European G.
accounts for 5% of the European G and is found along the Danube, Rhine, Meuse and Thames, in Greece and Corsica and Sardinia. Furthermore, in South and Southwest Asia in Turkey Kurds and Armenians in Iran at Armenians in India..
G2a2a1-PF3177+ is the fathergroup of G2a2a1b1-L166/L167, a cluster found on the islands of Corsica and Sardinia as well as in the 5000-year-old ice mummy, Ötzi, in the Alps and in some round the North Sea. It also occurs in south and southwest Asia.
G2a2b-L30/L32/U8/S126 is the major European trunk accounting for 80% of the G.
G2a2b1-M406/PF3285. originated in Turkey and probably entered Italy about 8000 years ago. This is the dominating G clade of southern Europe. 50% of the G men in Iraq, Turkey, Greece and the Balearic Islands have this clade, 25% in Georgia (G2a1a is almost 8%), 20% in Italy, 15% in Spain and the Netherlands, 8% in Switzerland, 6% in Iran, and 4% in Poland and Great Britain.
G2a2b2-L141.1+ probably originated in the Caucasus. Most of the northern Europeans belong to this clade. It is also found in Spain and northern Africa, and among the Brahmins in India.
G2a2b2a-P303/S135. occurs at high rates in the northern Caucasus region among the Karbadinians, Adyghians, Avars and Ingush, and in the majority of G men in Russia and Europe and on the island of Ibiza. It is found at lower rates south of the Caucasus, in Iran and the Middle East, as well as among Brahmins in India and with a certain haplotype in Ashkenazic Jews.
G2a2b2a1-L140/S316. This G clade is dominant in northern and Central Europe, accounting for almost 80% of the G men. This group is estimated to be about 15.000 years old. In some countries it accounts for 7% of the population, but the average is about 3%. It is usually divided into three major clades. It occurs in only small amounts outside the borders of the former Roman Empire. There is an Ashkenazic cluster in northwestern Europe.
G2b-M3115 The oldest archaeologically find is in the Wezmeh Cave in the Zagros Mountains, Iran. He lived 9,250 cal.ybp
G2b1-M377 is found in most G men in Afghanistan. It is also found among Maronite Christians in Turkey, incidentally in Iran, and among Ashkenazic Jews in western Europe.


The first farmers in Europe had G2a and G2a2b

Archaeologically found Y-DNA of the first settlers in Europe appeared te be G2a-P15 and G2a2b-L30. Before this time lived here hunter-gatheres who had C and I. Their first burial grounds are found at Derenburg in Saxen-Anhalt (Germany). It is dated between 7.000 and 7,500 years ago.
Y-DNA SNP's from three men could be determined: two men had Haplogroup F and one G2a2b2. From nearly the same period are the archaeological finds in Starvečo in North-West Hungary and finds of the Linear Band culture in the Carpathian Plane in Central Hungary.
These are the earliest settlements of the Neolithic culture in Europe. From nine men in Starvečo the Y-DNA haplogroup could exact determinded, and of 8 less or more complete. Haplogroup F is found in 23,5%, G2a in 18% in whom almost certainly G2a2a-PF3147, including G-L91 based on haplotypes, and G2a2b-S126 in 41%. Total G is nearly 60%. The others had I1a1-P37,2. (18)

Around 7000 years ago arrive this first in The Netherlands. They settle on the mountain slopes of the South Limburg Meuse Valley, as at Caberg a neighborhood on the edge of the plateau west of Maastricht. Here is the fertile loess soil. They find blocks in the underground with flint for the manufacture of tools. Their pottery jars have the Linear Pottery style. The culture is flourishing for 500 years and then disappears without a trace. To what extent this culture disappeared together the population has not yet been demonstrated. There is difference of opinion whether the bringers of the new culture have absorbed or expelled the resident population. See also Maastricht Au-DNA .


Impression of a LBK hamlet at Caberg a neighborhood on the edge of the plateau
west of Maastricht, the Netherlands. (19)


Y-DNA Haplogroup H-M69 arose in an F-man, most probably in India, 30.000 to 40.000 years ago. Today almost all carriers live in India. The European gypsies, called also the Roma or Sinti people, have this haplogroup ‑ they originally came from India.
H-M69, Saudi Arabia, Pakistan, India and Knia (From India?).
H1-M52, Kerala, India
H1a-M82, Romani, Sinti in Europe from India.
H1a1-M197 Iraq.
H1a1a2-L683, Kashmir
H2-P96 (formerly known as F3) Afganistan, (till now) all have DYS393=14.

Y-DNA Haplogroup I-M170 is an European group, It is the only Y-DNA haplogroup that is found in archaeological European Y-DNA. In a recent study it was out determined in all five men from the mesolyticum they had all Haplogroup I: I-P38 (2x), and I2a1b-CTS176 (3x). Nowadays it is present in about a fifth of the population. Outside Europe barely. This suggests an origine in Europe, before the last glacial maximum.
About 28.000 years ago it split into two major subgroups I1 and I2:
I1-M253 has its highest rates in northwest Europe, Great Britain, Scandinavia and Iceland, and was presumably spread further by Vikings, Angles and Saxons.
I1a1-M227 is concentrated in Eastern Europe and the Balkans, and three to five thousand years old. It is also seen in Germany, the Czech Republic, Poland, Estonia, Ukraine, Switzerland, Slovenia, Bosnia, Macedonia, Croatia, and Lebanon

Y-DNA Haplogroup I11

Y-DNA Haplogroup I1a

Y-DNA Haplogroup Ib1

Y-DNA Haplogroup I1b

Y-DNA Haplogroup I1c

Y-DNA Haplogroup I1c

I2-M438 is found in Armenia, Georgia and Turkey.
I2a-L460 probably originated in southern Europe during the Ice Age.
I2a1-P37.2 is found in European hunter-gatherers and nowadays in the Balkans and Sardinia.
I2a1a-M26 is found on Sardinia.
I2a1b-L178/CYS176 is found in mesolytic Sweden.
I2a2-M436 has its highest rates along the Northwest coast of Europe.
I2a2a-M223 is found in Great Britain and Northwest Europe.
I2a2a1-M284 is found exclusively in Great Britain, where it arose several thousand years ago.

Y-DNA Haplogroup J-P209 originated in Asia Minor and from there went to North Africa, Europe, Central Asia, Pakistan and India. Most come for J in the Middle East. The presence gradually decreases in the direction of Northwest Europe, where coastal residents have 3%. The distribution took place both in the Neolithic as well as by subsequent periodic waves of immigration.

J1-L255/M267/PF4646 branches could have originated in the Levant and is now found in other parts of Asia Minor and North Africa, having spread along the southern Mediterranean and into Ethiopia.

J2-L228/M172/S321 lines arose in the region along the Fertile Crescent, with its primary distribution probably occurring during the Neolithic period with the spread of agriculture in the Mediterranean region. It is not yet clear when J2 arrived in Central Asia, Pakistan, and India.
There is a decreasing gradient of occurrence from the Middle East to northwest Europe, where it occurs in about 3% of the population. This haplogroup entered Europe during the Neolithic expansion as well as during periodic immigrations ‑ each region has its own mixture.
A significant percentage of Jews belong to J, but Jews make up only a small percentage of the European J. The Cohen Modal Haplotype consists of six specific marker values, seen in both J1 and J2, but most often in J1.
J2a1 is found in an archaeological rest in Hungary from the Bronze Age.

Y-DNA Haplogroup J1

Y-DNA Haplogroup J1

Y-DNA Haplogroup J2

Y-DNA Haplogroup J2

Y-DNA Haplogroup K-M9 is an old line which arose about 50.000 years ago, probably in Asia Minor. There are two branches: the first branch splits into K1 through K4, which are found in low frequencies in Africa, Eurasia, Australia and the islands of the Pacific Ocean; haplogroups L through T arose from the second branch.
K1 or LT -L298/P326.
K2-M526 is found in a australia, 45,000 year-old modern human from western Siberia.

Y-DNA Haplogroup L-M20 divides into:
L1a in India, South Pakistan and Sri Lanka.
L1b L1b1 and L1b1a in low rates in The Middle East and Europe.
L1c in North Pakistan, North India and West-Central Asia.

Y-DNA Haplogroup M-P256 is found only in Papua, New Guinea, where it occurs in about 2/3 of the population.

Y-DNA Haplogroup N-M231 is distributed from southeast Asia to eastern Europe. The earliest finding of N in Europe comes from Iron Age Hungary, but is here virtually absent today. The more southerly distributed sub-clade N4 emerged before N2a1 and N3, found mostly in the north, but the latter two display more elaborate branching patterns, indicative of regional contrasts in recent expansions. In particular, a number of prominent and well-defined clades with common N3a3 ancestry occur in regionally dissimilar northern Eurasian populations, indicating almost simultaneous regional diversification and expansion within the last 5,000 years. This patrilineal genetic affinity is decoupled from the associated higher degree of language diversity. (20)
N1-M128, unsampled.
N1c1-L150, L1025, M2783, 6 Pol-Lith nobel (one princely) families each in a different clade with 3 to 4 private SNP's. (20a)
N2a-P43 old around 18.0 kya, split 9 kya.
N2a1-B525 Arab, Turk, Afghan;
N2a1-B478 Mongolian, Tuvinians, Nemets, Even, Yakut. Evenk;
N2a1-L1419. Mari, Vepsa; B528 Udmurt, Khant.
N2a2-B520 Han, Vietnamese, Japanese.
N3-M46 old around 18.0 kya.
N3a-L708, old around 13.0 kya. The split of his subgroups occurred round 7.0 kya ago.
N3a1-B211 Udmurts, Maris.
N3a2-M2118 old around 5 kya. Jakuts, Even, Han, Lebanese.
N3a3-VL29 Even, Estonians, Latvians, Central Russian, North Russian, Saamis.
N3a4-Z1936 Bashkirs, Tafars, Karelian, Vepsa, Kuban Kazack, Estonian.
N3a5-F4205 Turk, Kazakh, Buryats, Mongolians; B202 Koryaks, Chukchis, Inuit.
N3a6-B479 Nanais
N3b-B187 Tuvinian, Altaian, Shors, Khakasses.
N3c-B496 Japanese, old around 13.0 kya.
N4-F2930 Han, Japanese.
N5-B482 mixed.

Y-DNA Haplogroup O-M175 is China's haplogroup, probably originating in southern China and from there spreading throughout China and to Taiwan, Indonesia and the Pacific islands.
O* is found in an 3000 years old archeological samle of a Han Chinese.
O1 occurs mostly in Southeast Asia, Malaysia, Vietnam, Indonesia and South China.
O2a occurs in these same areas and is found in an 3000 years old archeological sample of a Han Chinese.
O2b has its highest frequencies among the populations of Japan and Korea.
O3 is the dominant subgroup of Middle and North China.
O3a is found in an 3000 years old archeological sample of a Han Chinese

Y-DNA Haplogroup P-M45sprung from K about 35.000 years ago in Central Asia and is now found in Uzbekistan, Kazakhstan and South Siberia. From it arose haplogroups Q and R, the dominant haplogroups of Europe and now also of America.

Y-DNA Haplogroup Q-M242 arose in Central Asia and spread via the Altai-Baikal region of northern Eurasia to China and along the Bering strait to North America and South America. It is still found in its region of origin as well as among some Europeans.
Q1a1-F1096-F1215 is found almost only in Han Chinese populations,although in low frequencies, but also in an 3000 years old archeological sample of a Han Chinese in North West China..
Q1a2a1a1-L341.2,is found in the Hunnu (Xiongnu) people a great people in the North of China, by the Europeans they are called Huns. (21)
In archaeological finds on the Loess Plateau of Hengbey that are 3000 years old, half of the men had haplogroup Q, particularly the social upper and middle class. The with them burried slaves all had haplogroup O2 and O3. (22)
Q1a3a1-M3 is exclusief for the old autochtones peoples of the Americas.
Q1b-L275, with many subgroups i.a:
Q-Y1150/L68 is in Tajikistan, Afghanistan, Pakistan, and India, formed there no later than the end of 3rd millennium BCE.
Q-Y2250 in Iran, Afghanistan, Pakistan, localization mid-3rd millennium BCE.
Q-YP745 in North Africa, Europe, and West Asia, dates back to the second half of 3rd millennium BCE and earlier.
Q-Y2200 in Europe, Central Asia: expanded not later than 2nd millennium BCE. (23)

Y-DNA Haplogroep R-M207 also arose from F and presumably emerged about 27.000 years ago in Asia in Central Asia.
R-M207* is found in southern Siberia in bone fragments of a four year old boy in a grave in Mal'ta near the Angara river that flows into Lake Baikal, dated at 24,000 years old and in the remains of a man found not far away from there in Afontova Gora, which are 17 000 his years old. It split into R1-M173 and R2-M479.

R1-M173 probably came during the height of the last glacial about 18,500 years ago. There are two major subgroups: R1a-L146/M420 en R1b-M343/PF6242.

R1a-L146/M420 The cradle is very likely in the Eurasian steppe or in the Indus Valley. Now it is most common in Eastern Europe and in Western and Central Asia.
R1a1a1-M417 arose in the Eurasian steppe. Diversification occurred about 5,800 YBP. This suggests the possibility that R1a lineages accompanied demic expansions initiated during the Copper, Bronze, and Iron ages, partially replacing previous Y-chromosome strata, an interpretation consistent with albeit limited ancient DNA evidence.
R1a1a1a-Z282 in North and West Russia.
R1a1a1a1-Z284 in Sothern Norway.
R1a1a1b-M458 in East Germany and Poland.
R1a1a1c-M558 in Russia.
R1a1a2-Z93 East Kazahkstan and West Mongolia.
R1a1b2a-Z2125 Uzbekistan.
R1a1b2a2-M780 in North India.

R1b-M343/PF6242 presumably arose in the Middle East. Its clades are found in Eurasia and Africa.
R1b1* and haplogroup R1b1c-V88 are present in southwest Asia and Africa where the Chadic languages are spoken.
R1b1a-P297 is found throughout the whole of Eurasia.
R1b1a1-M73 is found in Asia, and to some degree throughout Europe.
R1b1a2-M269/S13 is found in Europe, mostly western Europe, but also in southwest Asia. It is the modal Altlantic haplotype. In the Netherlands more than half of the population is in this subgroup. It arose 4.000 to 8.000 years ago in southwest Asia and later spread to Europe. The explosive growth went from (seemingly) zero to a solid majority in much of Western Europe over the last few thousand years; this is probably one of the most interesting events in recent European history.
R1b1a2a1a-L151/PF6542, L11 De oorsprong van het Europese R.
R1b1a2a1a1-L151/PF6552 and its subclades are Atlantic west-European.
R1b1a2a1a1-M405/S21/U106 includes most Europeans.
R1b1a2a1a1c-Z381 the clade of the Frankish Robertigs, later named the Capetians and later the Royal House Bourbon.
R1b1a2a1a2-P312/PF6547/S116 include also many Europeans.
R1b1c-V88 In the Middle East and Africa at speakers of the Chadian languages . <

R2-M124 is found in Asia on the Indian subcontinent and in central Asia.

Y-DNA Haplogroup R1a

Y-DNA Haplogroup R1a

Y-DNA Haplogroup R1b

Y-DNA Haplogroup R1b

Y-DNA Haplogroup S-M230 is the haplogroup of half of the population of the highlands of Papua, New Guinea. It is also found in low concentrations on neighboring islands.

Y-DNA Haplogroup T-M184 is found in low rates throughout the whole of Europe and in parts of middle, north and east Africa.
T-M184, in Armenia and Northwest Europe.
T1-M193, in Syria.
T1a-M70, in Iran, and in early neolithic skeleton found in Karsdorf, Germany, 7,200-7,000 years old. .
T1a1-l162, in northern Anatolia and Germany.
T1a1a-L208, in western Europe, eastern Anatolia, Iran, Arabian Peninusla, Upper Egypt and Horn of Africa. Some spots in western Morocco, Sahrawis and Canarias.
T1a1a1-P77, in Middle East, western Europe and Ashkenazi Jews.
T1a1a2-P321, in Syria and Ashkenazi Jews.
T1a1a2a-P317,in Syria and Italian Jews.
T1a2-L131, in northern Europe, eastern Europe, southeastern Europe and Anatolia. Also found in Xinjiang, Lemba, Tunisia, south and east Iberian Peninsula.
T1a2a-P322 in Scandinavia, Denmark, Germany and Netherlands. Some spots in Yemenite Jews and Palestine(P327).
T1a2b-L446,in Northwest Europe and eastern Alps.
T1a3-L1255,in Kuwait.


Hypothetical Spread of Y-DNA in Europe during Pre-Roman Times
Hypothetical Spread of Y-DNA in Europe during Pre-Roman Times
R-S21 is R1b1a2a1a1 R-S28 is R1b1a2a1a2b
R-L21 is R1b1a2a1a1a R-M167 is R1b1a2a1a2a1b1a

Homines tree (24)

Mayukh Mondal, HumanTree

Stamboom van de hominiden. (24a)


World Map of Y-DNA Haplogroups

Hover your mouse over the map to see a magnification of Western Europe. (25)

Please note that peoples do exist in which a single haplogroup decisively dominates, such as the native Americans or Bantu farmers, but most human groups show a mixture of various lineages in differing frequencies.

For example, the wide distribution of haplogroup G ‑ which occurs throughout western Eurasia, but is dominant only in the Caucasus and in some populations of the Near East ‑ could not be deduced from this map.

The labeling of R1 as "NE Amerindian" is peculiar, given the likely introduction of this lineage with European colonists, but in any case this only underscores the complexities of the present-day distribution of Y-chromosome haplogroups.


MtDNA  Haplogroups

The spread of mtDNA haplogroups from Africa (Jean Manco)

The spread of mtDNA haplogroups - Jean Manco

As a result of the sequencing of the complete Y-chromosomes of 69 males from nine populations and applying equivalent methodologies to the Y-chromosome and the mitochondrial genome the time to the most common Ancestor of the mitochondrial genome mt-TMRCA is estimated to be at 99.000 to 148.000 years. (26)

Mt-Haplogroup L0 is the clade of the woman who lived about 125.000 years ago in south or east Africa. All mitochondrial DNA lineages of humankind today are her descendants.
L0d is represented by click speaking forager peoples of Southern Africa, defined as Khoesan, living at the semi-desert regions of Namibia and Botswana.
L0d2c is found in an 2,330 year old male skeleton of a pre-pastoral Southern African marine forager. This clade only survived in sisterclades.
L1 is the first subgroup, spread throughout the whole of Africa.
L2 and L3 appeared about 70.000 years ago. After a gradual and sustained population decline, a rapid population growth occurred in which L2 and L3 took the place of the L0 and L1 women. These latter have remained only among the Khoisan (Bushmen) and Bayaka (Western Pygmies).
L3 arose in North East Africa. From this sprang the mt-Haplogroups M and N which have spread throughout Eurasia.

The women in the groups that arrived in Eurasia sixty thousand years ago had the haplogroups M and N.

mt-Haplogroup M arose about 60 to 80,000 years ago, probably in East Africa, but possibly also in Arabia and spread together with N over Eurasia. In Europe, M disappeared during the last glacial maximum and was replaced by subclades of N.

From M arose the subgroups C, Z, D, E, G and Q.

Mt-Haplogroup N arose also about 70,000 years ago likely in Arabia Africa and is the mother mtDNA haplogroup from which all present-day Europeans come. This group emerged in Africa and is still found in extremely low concentrations throughout the whole of Europe and Asia. Subgroups arose during the last Ice Age when they there were still hunter-gatherers.
N1a In the early European Neolithic farmers, 5800 BC, in the Carpathic Plain the most common HG among 12 others.
N1a1 is the foundergroup of mt-Haplogroup I.
N1b2was probably assimilated into the ancestors of the Ashkenazi in the north Mediterranean area.
N9a is found in east, southeast, and central Asia, and in two ancient Sarmatian burial sites.

From N arose the subgroups O, A, S, R, I, W, X, Y, B, F, J, P, U, H, V, J, T and K.


Mt-Haplogroup C probably spread beyond its Ice Age refuge ‑ the area of Lake Baikal, the Yenisei River valley, and the Altai and Sayan mountains ‑ during the Mesolithic period. This haplogroup was among those carried by the potters of Lake Baikal about 7500 years ago.
C4a2 is found today in 40% of the Tubalars, an ethnic group in the Altai Republic in Russia. (29)

Mt-Haplogroup pre-HV, the precursor of the groups H and V has been extracted from a Cro-Magnon who lived 28.000 years ago in South-Italia.

Mt-Haplogroup H arose 35.000 years ago in central Asia and, with a 40% rate of occurrence, is the major mt-haplogroup in Europe today. It is noteworthy that the rate of occurrence in archaeological European DNA from 7,500 years ago is only half and, in Mesolithic material, hardly any at all. (27)
The current diversity appears to have originated during the mid-Neolithic, about 6.000 years ago, with later contributions from Iberia about 5.000 years ago.
H1 is highest among the Norwegians at 30% , with descending rates from there.
H2 is found in low concentrations on Sardinia and also in the Caucasus. It seems to accompany Y-DNA: G2a.
H3 is found at a rate of 10-12% in Portugal, northern Spain, and Sardinia, and at a rate of 6% in Ireland, Norway and Hungary.
H5 and H7 are found in the Caucasus and in low concentrations along the Mediterranean, in Anatolia along the Danube as far as the Alps. It possibly accompanies Neolithic Y-DNA: E1b1b, R1b1b2, J2 and T,
H13 has the same distribution as H2.

Mt-Haplogroup I arose about 20.000 years ago in the Near East or the Caucasus and dispersed in waves. One wave went to northern Europe, primarily Norway and Finland; another wave went to Pakistan and northwestern India. It is still present in the Ukraine around the Caspian Sea, and in Anatolia and Greece. It seems to be connected with Proto-Indo-European culture, consequently accompanying Y-DNA R in particular R1a. but nothing is certain. Some think it may have been one of the foundation Mt-haplogroups of Europe which was later driven north and to other remote places. To date, Haplogroup I has not been found in samples taken from ancient European Paleolithic, Neolithic, and Mesolithic grave sites, however it has been noted with significant frequency in more recent historic grave sites in Scandinavia. Its later dispersion would then be associated with the Vikings. The Croatian island of Krk is a "hotspot".

Mt-Haplogroup J is also an old haplogroup which arose 45.000 years ago in central Asia. It is thought to have come to Europe with Neolithic agriculture. Today it is commonly found in central Asia and north of the Caucasus. It seems to have some connection with Indo-European culture and the Y-DNA haplogroup R1b.
J1 is common in the Middle East, central Asia, the Ukraine, and in the German-speaking countries of Europe, and is affiliated with the Y-DNA haplogroup I1.
J1a arose 27.000 years ago in Asia Minor.
J2 is small and seen in Southeast Europe and Anatolia.

Mt-Haplogroup K arose out of U8, and is found throughout the whole of Europe and western Asia to India. The highest concentrations are in northeast and central Europe, Anatolia and southern Saudi Arabia. It is thought to have emerged about 16.000 years ago in Egypt or Anatolia. Despite its relatively young age, it has the most subgroups.
K1a is the largest clade. The fact that it is so common in Asia Minor suggests that it was still there before the Neolithic expansion into Europe. It was not found in Europe before the Neolithic entry, but afterwards suddenly reached 17%. Among present-day Europeans, this percentage has dropped and is about the same as in the present-day Levant.
K1a1b1a is found predominantly in Ashkenazic European Jews.
K1a4 is found in Europe and Anatolia, having spread in Europe together with mt-Haplogroups J and T and Y-DNA haplogroups E1b1b, J2 and T.
K1a9 is found predominantly in Ashkenazic European Jews.
K1a10 is European.
K1a12a archaeologic finds in west Anatolia. Nowadays in Armenia, Iran, Quwayt, Italia and in Druses.
K1b is European.
K1c is European.
K2 is European.
K2a2a1 is found predominantly in Ashkenazic European Jews.

Mt-Haplogroup R arose from N and from these arose after the late glacial Maximum in Europe 6 mt-Haplogroups: pre-HV, T, U and K and the eastern subgroups R1 through R31 in Asia, Australia and the Americas.

Mt-Haplogroup T originated about 15.000 years ago in Mesopotamia or northeastern Africa. Today it is found in northern Europe, northern Africa, Central Asia, and Siberia, with foci in India and northwestern China.
T1 originated in the Fertile Crescent and/or the South Caucasus. It is strongly associated with the expansion of agriculture during the Neolithic period, and to a lesser extent also with the spread of the Indo-Europeans during the Bronze Age. .
T2 has been found in all major Neolithic cultures in Europe (Starcevo, LBK, Cucuteni-Trypillian, Cardium Pottery, Atlantic Megalithic...), but like haplogroup J it could have been present in Southeast Europe since the Mesolithic

T2bis found in three archelogical samples from Barcin (Poland), a female, a G-L91 and a H2-M282. in an G-PF3170 individual from c. 7200 ybp from Halberstad (Germ), and in the G-L91* Bronze Age individual from Szöreg (Hungary), c. 3800 ybp.

Mt-Haplogroup U arose about 60.000 years ago from a woman in the mtDNA Haplogroup R branch. This has beenthe only ancient DNA found in Europe dating from 30.000 to 5600 years ago. About 5000 years ago it was abruptly replaced by a very rich mtDNA diversity of the neolithic farmers. (28)
U* is the oldest, found in someone who had lived about 15,500 years ago at Hohle Fels, a cave in Baden-Würtenberg, Germany.
U1 is found in the Middle East.
U2 is obviously old European, exemplified by a 37,000 years old skeleton fond in Kostenki in Russia and an another 30.000-year-old found along the Don in Russia.
U3 and U4 is found around the Black Sea, mostly on the northeast side, in Central Asia around Tajikistan, and in eastern Europe.
U4 is found in late hunter-gatherers in Germany.
U5 arose round 40.000 years ago and is also a dominant clade of thePalaeolithic hunter-gatherers in Europe.
U5a in a 9000-year-old skeleton found in a cavern at Cheddar Gorge in Somerset Today it is found only in the far north among the Lapps, where it still has a 30% - 50% rate of occurrence.
U5a1 is dominant among the late hunter-gatherers in Germany, Lithuania, Poland, Sweden and Russia. In Siberia it was found as early as 4.000 years ago in burial sites where it was mixed with east Asian mtDNA C.
U5b1 in Iberia.
U5b1b arose 6,500 years ago and is compassing 48% of the Saami (Northeast Scandinavia), Yakut (Northeast Siberia), Berbers, (Algeria) and Fulbe (Senegal). It is striking that its populations live 9.000 miles apart. They belong to original hunter-gathering population of Europe and will be expelled to and over the edges of the continent by the successive waves of Neolithic newcomers.
U5b2a5 The clade of the mesolithic skeletons, from Croatia and Korčula, 6000 BC.
U5b2c1 has been found in ancient mtDNA from a mountain cave site in La Braña-Arintero in northern Spain, dating from 7.000 years ago.
U5b3 seems to have spread along the Mediterranean coast from a refuge on the Italian peninsula.
U6 in archelogic remains of an individual, PM1, in Romania (Europe) is found U6*, cal 35ky BP. U6 is now found in Europe, Central Asia. and derived U6 haplotypes are now predominantly found in present-day North-Western Africa. European colonization brought different U6 lineages throughout the American continent leaving the specific sign of the colonizers origin.
U7 probably originated in Asia about 18.000 years ago. This haplogroup is found mainly in western and southern Asia. It is rare in Europe, but has been found among Sarmatians on the Russian Steppe dating back to 500 BCE. Low levels are found in parts of Sweden today. Two women who must have been of high status were buried with grandeur in the Oseberg Ship, discovered in a Viking burial mound in Norway. The elder may have been queen Åsa, the grandmother of king Harald Fairhair. The youger carried mtDNA U7.
U8 a European clade from which mt-Haplogroup K originates.
U9 is found in Ethiopia, the Arabic peninsula, and Pakistan.

Mt-Haplogroup V presumably arose on the Iberian peninsula 15.000 years ago, during the last glacial period, among the hunter-gatherers who had withdrawn there with H1, H3 and U5 men. When the climate improved, they repopulated Europe. Today they constitute a large group, with the highest concentrations being found in northern Scandinavia among the Lapps (40%), and rates descending as one moves south, with the Netherlands at 8%.

Mt-Haplogroup W arose 18.000 years ago, with a spread similar to that of mt-Haplogroup I. Today it is found in the Ukraine, European Russia, the Baltic states and Finland, where it occurs in 3% to 5% of the population. In North Pakistan its rate of occurrence is 15%, and in North India, 10%, mostly among the higher castes and Indo-European speakers, and often paired with Y-DNA R1a and R1b.

Mt-Haplogroup X is more than 30.000 years old and is found in low concentrations in every population in Europe and northern Africa, and among the American Indians. The rates of occurrence are usually 1% to 2 % and rarely above 5%.
X1 is found only in northern Africa.
X2b is only found among American Indians. The Ojibwa, the third largest Indian nation in Amerika, living at the borders of the US and Canada in the general area of the great lakes. have an rate of 25%, the other indians have about 4%. (31)
X2a, X2c, X2d and X2e are found in Europe, West Siberia and Central Asia.
X2 has high concentrations around the Caucasus, descending to Central Asia and the Mediterranean.



Distribution of Y-DNA and Mt-DNA haplogroups in Eurasia circa 9000 to 7000 BCE.


What are we in the Netherlands

The pie charts below show the distribution of the ten largestY-DNA haplogroups in the Netherlands at 410 men in 2008, and in the Oud Hertogdom Brabant Project in Flanders among 1057 men in 2013.

The differences between Belgium and the Netherlands are slightly distorted due to the participation of a small number of southern Dutchmen in the Belgian project. In the Belgian project, there was also an under-participation of French-speaking Walloons.

70% of all participants belonged to only four sub-haplogroups: R1b1b2a1 (R-U106), R1b1b2a2* (R-P312*), R1b1b2a2g (R-U152) and I1* (I-M253*). Significant micro-geographical differentiation within the sampling region was detected, mainly between the Dutch (Noord-Brabant) vs. the Flemish regions based on the differences in sub-haplogroup frequencies but not based on the Y-haplotype data within the main sub-haplogroups. A clear gradient was found with higher frequencies of R1b1b2 (R-M269) chromosomes in the northern vs. southern regions, mainly related to a similar trend in the frequency of R1b1b2a1 (R-U106). The genetic pattern faded away during the last centuries but was still detectable in 1950 according to the genealogical data. Nevertheless, the significant genetic differentiations and the clear gradient is not observable any longer in the contemporary population, most likely due to our higher mobility opportunities. (32)

ZvA Haplogroups percentages


ZvA Haplogroups percentages


The Differences

The differences between the two countries are quite clear in both haplogroup R1b and haplogroup I.
Haplogroup R1b has its peak concentration in Great Britain, France and Belgium, with the rate of occurrence decreasing as one moves away from this center.
Haplogroup I has its peak concentration in Scandinavia, with the rate of occurrence decreasing as one moves away from there.
Haplogroup E is found in the Netherlands at almost half the rate of that found in Belgium. The peak for this haplogroup is found in in central Africa, with the concentrations decreasing as one moves north and east: the further from Africa, the lower the rate of occurrence.
Haplogroup J has its peak in Central Asia and the Mediterranean. In the Netherlands, these people could be descendants of Romans or Jews.
Haplogroup G has an approximately 10% higher concentration in the southern part of the Netherlands than in the northern part, being 4.1% in the south and 3.7% in the north.


New Culture ‑ New Genes
Mesolithic DNA

The oldest archeological found Y-DNA is C-M130* It is found in a 37,000 years old skeleton in Kostenki on the Middle Don River in Russia. now still in Australia.

From an European hunter-gatherer, who died 7000 years ago in La Brañaa, in Spain, could also ample DNA be determined, mtDNA, autosomal and Y-DNA. This man was C1a2-V20 and this clade exists still in Europe, although it is nowadays rather rare. He had a very dark skin and blue eyes.


Curiously, it now seems that both Europe and India were (in part) inhabited by brown people and became lighter by a process of admixture + selection. The process went "all the way" in Europe, but a cline of pigmentation was sustained in India. (33)

Neolithic DNA

An abrupt shift is 7200 years ago (before present, ybp) with the arrival of the first Neolithic farmers. This is found in Germany and Hungary, With their dominant haplogroup G2a and its subgroups G2a2b and G2a2b. The oldest European mummy, which was found in a glacier in Tyrol in the Ötzenthal and lived there 5300 years ago had G2a2a1b1a1-FGC5672 and mtDNA haplogroup K1. A family from Thuringia in Lower Franconia, Bavaria, still has the same Y-DNA clades.

Bronze Age DNA

Around 6,800 ybp. We see at the beginning of the Bronze Age another shift. In a short period Haplogroup G is largely supplanted by a population of highly successful metalworkers and horse breeders. They have the Y-DNA haplogroup R. The northern branch R1a, the southern R1b

They came from the Yamna culture in Southern Russia and brought the Corded ware or Battle axe culture which lasted from 5000 to 4300 ybp. This new population spoke the proto-germanic language. The question is whether there has been genocide or displacement.

It appears that half of the current European population are descendants of a single man, a king of this people with Y-DNA at the beginning of haplogroup R.

Iron Age DNA

About 4.000 ybp, at the beginning of the Iron Age, a change in mt-DNA occurred in Europe. This was coincidental and was probably related to the beginning of the dry era in the Middle East, following the long wet period on the Arab peninsula which had lasted from 8,500 to 4,500 years ago.

Roman Time

A multitude of all Y-DNA clades happens, There is increasing prosperity throughout Europe concomitant with increased mobility of all kinds of people.


The dramatic Y-DNA changes in the Neolithicum

In contrast to demographic reconstructions based on mtDNA, we see a strong second bottleneck in the Y-chromosome lines in the last 10,000 years. The assumption is that this problem is caused by cultural changes affecting variance of reproductive success among males. We think of social stratification together with polygamy. The first was the out-of-Africa bottleneck in the Eurasian founder haplogroups in the narrow time interval at 47 to 52 kya.

The Y chromosome plot suggested a reduction at around 4000 to 8000 yaers, when the female number is up to 17-fold higher than the male Number. (34)

Variation of Y chromosome effective population size-c

The dramatic events in the Neolithic, Bronze and Iron Age.
From: Monika Karmin, e.a., A recent bottleneck ..., Gen. Res. March 13, 2015.


Replacement of mtDNA
during each immigration wave of the Neolithic period

To date, new DNA from four consecutive Neolithic cultures in Europe has been analyzed:
Cardium Pottery, flourished about 8500 to 7500 years ago in southwest France and Spain;
De Starčevo culture flourished about 8200 to 7200 years ago around present Hungary and the Balcans. (35)
Linearbandkeramik (LBK, or Linear Pottery Culture), flourished about 7500 to 6500 years ago in Germany, in the Netherlands in South-Limburg and in Belgium in the Hapengouw.
In the Starveco and LBK culture, you see the haplotypes are a mix of some kind of G2a-P15 L30- (almost certainly G2a2a-PF3147, including G-L91), and one or more kind of G2a2b-L30 haplotypes may have included G-L497 and G-L13 what is now common in that region. Of the I2a1b-M423 most retreated to the North, some joined;
Rössen Culture (RSC) flourished about 6400 to 6250 years ago. Also foud are: H5, HV0, U5, and K. (36)
Bell Beaker culture (German: Glockenbecher-Kultur) flourished about 4850 to 4140 years ago in Europe and England.
Corded Ware culture (Schnurkeramik; Strijdhamer cultuur ) began 4500 BP, en populated North Eurasia. (37)

Each wave of immigration brought new people, a new culture and new genes. The immigrants did not integrate, but displaced the indigenous population. With each immigration wave came a new culture, and also entered new DNA, replacing the existing. Sometimes the old hunter-gatherer DNA partially returned. .

timeline mtDNA

MtDNA Timelines
Cave: The time scale shown is in radio carbon calibrated years before the onset of the current era.
BC is Before Christ so add 2000 years to the time to the present day.



We see in the population history of Europe following successive populations: (38)


1. Neanderthalers.
2. Cro-Magnon Hunter-gatherers
3. Postgaciale Hunter-gatherers
4. Agrarians.
5. Metallurgists.

Starting time

circa 200.000 years ago
circa 50.000 years ago
circa 14.000 years ago
circa 8.000 years ago
ctca 4.800 years ago

End time

circa 44.000 ybp
circa 14.000 ybp
a large part to the present
a small part to the present
forms the majority now.


Autosomal DNA (AuDNA) in a Maastrichter

In this Maastrichter are present the genes of all the peoples of the European prehistory.
Remarkable is the large amount of, what is called here, Caucasian DNA.

earliest agrarians
Central Asians
the rest


Etnische herkomst B. Marres, Bron: GedMatch


Recent replacement of the Y-DNA in Cuba

A good example of the displacement of native genes by a new set shows the genographic composition of the Caribbean island of Cuba. The island has been inhabited for 7,000 years. In 1513 it became a Spanish colony. At that time the Island had about 110,000 inhabitants. Now there are more than eleven million. The newcomers were Spanish but also many Africans, who came as slaves into the country.

In 2012 an admixture analysis is made of a group of 1019 non-selective chosen people. To do this, a mixture of autosomal, Y-DNA, and mtDNA haplogroup diagnostic markers is used. They found that the original Y-DNA haplogroups have almost entirely disappeared. for nearly 99½. Of mtDNA haplogroups disappeared two thirds.

In the imported population of black slaves this process occurred also, but to a much lesser extent. Their Y-DNA is still half their mtDNA. (39)

The conclusion that can be drawn is that at a relatively peaceful domination the initial male DNA almost completely disappears, but the female DNA to a large extent remains. When the latter disappears there will have been an extermination.

Cuba DNA


26 %
39 %
35 %

Autosomal DNA
72 %
20 %
8 %.

81,8 %
17,7 %
0,5 %

Example: This study has a significance that goes far beyond this island alone. Dominant new populations, anywhere in the world and in all times, will have bred with the women of conquered peoples. Of the subject men only a small part could have been able to maintain. Small Y-DNA haplogroups may be traces of an initial population. The small clades of Haplogroup G may be remnants of some ancient overrun native populations.


Searching for our anthropological background with Great DNA Projects

With the aid of data in large databases, one can discover the countries in which a particular haplogroup (or better, a subgroup) figures. As more tests are done, one will be able to look more deeply into our background. It is already becoming increasingly clear where certain subgroups originated and which peoples are characterized by each: Celts, Frisians, Franks, Burgundians, Saxons, Vikings, Vandals, Alans, Huns, Lombards, etc.

GENO 2.0

In July 2012, the Genographic 2.0 Project test introduced. This test takes advantage of a chip that sequences more than 12,000 SNPs on every chip for all participants. This has had the dramatic effect of significantly rearranging the Y tree.

FTDNA ‑ the Big Y project

The Big Y test of FTDNA sequences a much larger part of the Y chromosome than done previously by either the standard Y marker (STR) testing, or the Geno 2.0 chip. The first results are now known.

Full Genomes Sequencing

The Full Genomes Sequencing is a high-coverage test, which basically tests all testable chromosome locations, perhaps 25 million in total.
This test finds a new SNP in every third to five generation, 100 to 150 years. This means it can determine relationships quite accurately in the short space of time between child and great grandfather, and so exact determine the moment that the different branches in families split up. This apllies to the last centuries and also to thousands of years ago. before family names were used.

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Auteur: Boed Marres, Amsterdam,

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