From: Geschiedenis en Kunst - Woord- en beeldende kunst op het net, b.van den Ende - Phoeniciers_Geschiedenis en kunst


G - FGC6669

Gallia Belgica

The Fertile Crescent


G-M201 G-PF3147 G-FGC6669 G-FGC6618 G-FGC6634 G-L91


Haplogroups Far Forbears Genetics Home Contact


G2a2a1a1 - FGC6669

This clade is formed 11,000 years ago

Hij originated in Central Anatolia, Turkey, the western part of the Fertile Crescent, immediately after the last ice age, the Mesolitic. It is in the Preboreal that followed the last cold phase of the Weichsel glacier, the young Dryas - also called the "last ice age"

In the pre-ceramic Neolithic Boncuklu are found the oldest archaeologic remains of this clade dated 10,300 BP. Thousant years later the first cultured "Emmer wheat" appears. Remains from members of our father clade G-PF3147 are found in Tepecik-Çiftlik and are dated 8,500 BP.

The archaeological-botanical remains of Boncuklu Höyük in western Anatolia, from Çatal Höyük in southern Anatolia, and Chogha Golan in the Zagros Mountains of West Iran are the oldest examples of real agricultural cultures. (1)





A strong climate change begins 8,500 years ago. This causes the drought still present in the Middle East. The country is shrinking. In addition, the breakthrough of the Bosphorus causes the level of the Black Sea to rise thirty meters in a relatively short time. This event lives fort in stories about a flood in the Gilgamesh epic and the bible.


Departure from the Region

Both owing to population growth and reduced agricultural production a large number of this G population leaves Anatolia . They spread outl in all directions, east to Pakistan, north to the Caucasus and westward to Europe. They spread agricultural culture across Europe and Asia.

The start of expansion to Europe began already before 8500 BP with a departure to three regions in western Anatolia: the lake area at Antalya, the coasts on both sides of the Aegean Sea, and in the Northwest around the Sea of Marmara at Barcin.


Possible migration routes of G2a2a and G2a2b, respectively the LBK and the Cardial Ware cultures.

There were two groups that entered Europe in different ways. By land, A the Continental group B along the coast by boat, the Mediterranean group; and C those who found survival places in the region.


The continental group goes through Macedonia and the Morava and Danube valleys to Serbia and Hungary where they reach the Hungarian lowlands around 8000 years. Here are many archaeological discoveries done of them. They continue along the Danube and the Rhine to Western Europe. They were the first European Neolithic farmers and according to the characteristic decorations of their pottery this is called the Linear Band Culture.

In South Limburg, the Hesbaye and the Condroz flourish their culture from 7,800 years ago. They meet here the Hoguettiens. Through Lorraine a branch went through Paris basin to the Channel and Hainaut.



The maritime group went from the Aegean region along South coasts of Anatolia and the Levant to Cyprus and Crete and further to North Africa and Morocco. They are the bearers of the Cardial Ware culture.

In 8,200 BPthey reach Italy, Corsica and Sardinia and then around 7,500 BP the coasts of Spain and Portugal's and Spanish coasts. Not only the coasts were colonized but also the interior of the counties to the Italian Alps.

One part goes in France to the north along the Rhône and Loire to the Atlantic coast. The characteristic pottery found in Normandy at La Hoguette is awarded to them. These Hoguettiens are also found across the Rhine at Stuttgart and Worms. They were also into South Limburg where they lived atthe same time besides the continental LBK branch.

It is very likely that many from Normandy took the crossing to England. This will have been at the narrowest place in Calais. They arrived in England about 6,000 years ago. British Neolithian farmers were genetically comparable to contemporary populations in continental Europe, and especially to the neolithic Iberians, the inhabitants of the east coast of Spain, suggesting that some of the peasant families in Britain came through the Mediterranean Sea and not via the continental route along the Danube. (2)


The Stayers It seems very likely that G-FGC6669 lived in a location not yet found in this region and that his descendants spread here and there much later.

FGC6669*, the asterisk indicates he has this a his final branch, is in Sardinia and in Latin America.


G - FGC6663

This branch is formed around 10,000 before present out of FGC6669.

One family is FGC6663*
They live in Адыгея песпулика, the republic Adygea in the Russian district Krasnodar, Краснодарский край. In this region live also many Armenians.

From FGC6663 comes



Formed around 7,500 ybp.

An Armenian family is G-Y14935*

Immediately after its origin, it splits into four branches.

splitsing in vier

In Europe, England and Lebanon.

Their TMRCA is 4.400 year.
This group follows below.


In Belgium and The Netherlands

Their TMRCA is 1.400 years.

This group has his own page.


In Poland

formed 7.400 ybp.


In Saudi Arabia and in Italy

Their TMRCA is 6.000 year.

Europa Google Earth-G2a2a2a

FGC58131 and M286 blue

FGC6618 yellow

G-BY157359 red



Yfull Tree G-FGC6669 (18-11-2019)





Is formed 7400 ybp
An Armenian is FGC58131*.


Formed about 7,000 years before present
This branch stayed for a time in the Middle East.


Formed 4,400 ybp


Formed Formed 4.400 ybp
FGC58189* are English.


Formed 3300 ybp
Syrians and Lebanese
TMRCA 1100 yb


Formed 3.300 ybp
Two English family groups
TMRCA 500 ybp


Here we present the four matching groups

Note: These are based on the haplotype with STRs.
The TMRCA is only indicative in the green squares, and probably more in the yellow ones. In the red and bleu ones it may be the double to quadruple and in the whites even to op to 10 times more then indicated.
This is due to convergence, what means reverse and parallel mutations.

M286_GD M286_TMRCA


It is still dark to us how it went. When he stayed in the original region. He was probably an Aegean farmer, an inhabitant of Troy and have fought under Patroclos against the Achaeans.

More east was the empire of the Hatti to about 4,000 years ago existed. Their language was akin to the ancient Caucasian languages. Çatalhöyük was in part of the region and was about 185 km south of their capital of Hattusa.

Hattusa is around 1700 v. Chr. under the authority of a Hittite dynasty, who a short time before had founded the first Hittite kingdom.

Hittite Empire

The extensive Hittite Empire (red) replaces around 1290 AC Hatti and borders the Egyptian empire (green) (3)

The empire of the Hittite dynasty existed between about 1700 and 1200 BC. Then the whole eastern Mediterranean was brought in great turmoil by attacks of the Sea People, as they were called in Egyptian papyri. Many cities on the coasts and on islands such as Cyprus, were destroyed or abandoned. The Hittite Empire then split into separate states. (4)

In the eleventh century BC. the Phoenicians appear. They inhabit the eastern coastal region of the Levant in the eastern part of the Mediterranean, they were traders and established colonies, first in Cyprus "Alashiya"), then in Sardinia and they sailed past Gibraltar to the Atlantic coasts in Morocco and Portugal, where she won gold, silver and tin and also settled colonies. The most distant colony was, at present Cadiz.

Santa Trega

Fort on the hills in Galicia in the northwest of Spain.

In Santa Trega on the Spanish-Portuguese border are round stone houses with small cobbled streets and views of the Minho River in Portugal. Here was a fort that gave habitat to 2,500 people. Until now, archaeologists believe it was inhabited for 500 years, about 2,500 years ago , and finally destroyed by the arrival of the Romans. In other words, it provides a clear example of indigenous communities, pre-Roman, iron age.

This hillfort has many similarities to those of the UK , including the artistic drawings that many describe as Celtic. But they have also developed their own unique tradition, known throughout Spain as Castro Culture. Among the waste was found pottery of the Phoenician world. (5)


In the story above, I try to describe our walk through history.

There are still many scenarios possible. We can descend from the first Neolithic farmers from the southern branch. Our farthest ancestors can come from the Neolithic "Hoguettiens". We may have come later in Roman times and are descendants of a Roman legion soldier. After 25 years of faithful service, they received land, often when it was fertile land, and that was our region, in the places where they had served. The northern boundary of the Roman Empire was from the fourth century until the end, where the language line lies on the Roman road from Cologne to Boulogne sur Mer, across Belgium.

Members of our subgroup are now found first in the Levant and in Cyprus, but also in Armenia, Saudi Arabia, Sardinia, on the Löss lands on the ancient Roman northern way through Belgium, and in England

Every new find usually shed some more light on our walk through the past.

G-FGC6669 tree

The Timeline of G-FGC6669


Auteur: Boed Marres, Amsterdam,

last edit: